424B4
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Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
Registration No. 333-255344

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Oatly Group AB

84,376,000 American Depositary Shares

Representing 84,376,000 Ordinary Shares

 

 

This is our initial public offering. We are offering 64,688,000 American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”), with each ADS representing the right to receive one of our ordinary shares, and certain of our existing shareholders (the “Selling Shareholders”) are offering 19,688,000, with each ADS representing one of our ordinary shares. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ADSs by the Selling Shareholders. The initial public offering price is $17.00 per ADS.

 

 

Our ADSs have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “OTLY.”

Concurrently with, and subject to, the consummation of this offering, three of our non-affiliate existing shareholders, affiliates of Luxor Capital Group (“Luxor”), affiliates of the Santo Domingo Group Advised by Quadrant Capital Advisors, Inc. (“Santo Domingo Group”) and K2 Global V LLC (“K2”), have agreed to purchase $87.0 million, $31.0 million and $17.0 million, respectively, of ADSs in private placements, at a price per ADS equal to the initial public offering price, from some of the holders of our outstanding warrants, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, which will be exercised in connection with and prior to the completion of this offering. The proceeds to the warrant holders will principally be used to finance the exercise price of the warrants, including loan and interest payments, and to satisfy related tax liabilities. All of the outstanding warrants will be exercised prior to the completion of this offering, otherwise they expire with no value.

Baillie Gifford Overseas Limited or one of its affiliates (“Baillie Gifford”), acting on behalf of a number of its clients, has indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $500 million of ADSs in this offering at a price per ADS equal to the initial public offering price. However, because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, Baillie Gifford could determine to purchase more, less or no ADSs in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ADSs to Baillie Gifford. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ADSs purchased by Baillie Gifford as they will from any other ADSs sold to the public in this offering.

Investing in our ADSs involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 24.

We are both an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” under applicable U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules and will be eligible for reduced public company disclosure requirements. See “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an ‘Emerging Growth Company’ and a ‘Foreign Private Issuer.’”

 

 

Price $17.00 per ADS

 

 

 

      

Price to Public

      

Underwriting
Discounts

and
Commissions(1)

      

Proceeds to us
(before expenses)

      

Proceeds to the
Selling
Shareholders
(before expenses)

 

Per ADS

       $17.00          $0.8075          16.1925          16.1925  

Total

       $1,434,392,000          $68,133,620          1,047,460,440          318,797,940  

 

(1)

We refer you to “Underwriting (Conflicts of interest)” for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.

To the extent that the underwriters sell more than 84,376,000 ADSs, the underwriters have the option to purchase up to an additional 12,656,400 ADSs representing 12,656,400 ordinary shares from the Selling Shareholders at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers against payment on or about May 24, 2021.

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

Morgan Stanley   J.P. Morgan   Credit Suisse
Barclays   Jefferies   BNP PARIBAS
BofA Securities   Piper Sandler   RBC Capital Markets

Senior Co-Managers

 

Rabo Securities   William Blair   Guggenheim Securities   Truist Securities
CICC   Nordea   Oppenheimer & Co.   SEB

Junior Co-Managers

 

Blaylock Van, LLC

Ramirez & Co., Inc.

  

C.L. King & Associates

Siebert Williams Shank

  

Loop Capital Markets

Tribal Capital Markets

Prospectus dated May 19, 2021


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

About this prospectus

     ii  

Market and industry data

     ii  

Trademarks, service marks and tradenames

     iii  

Presentation of financial and other information

     iv  

Prospectus summary

     1  

Risk factors

     24  

Cautionary statement regarding forward-looking statements

     62  

Use of proceeds

     63  

Dividend policy

     64  

Capitalization

     65  

Dilution

     66  

Selected consolidated financial data

     68  

Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations

     70  

Letter from our Chief Executive Officer, Toni Petersson

     90  

Business

     91  

Management

     121  

Principal and selling shareholders

     132  

Related party transactions

     135  

Description of share capital and articles of association

     138  

Description of American Depositary Shares

     145  

Shares and ADSs eligible for future sale

     160  

Material tax considerations

     162  

Underwriting (Conflicts of interest)

     168  

Expenses of the offering

     181  

Legal matters

     182  

Experts

     182  

Enforcement of civil liabilities

     183  

Where you can find more information

     184  

Index to consolidated financial statements

     F-1  
 

 

 

For investors outside the United States: Neither we nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction, other than the United States, where action for that purpose is required. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our ADSs and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

We are incorporated in Sweden, and a majority of our outstanding securities are owned by non-U.S. residents. Under the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), we are currently eligible for treatment as a “foreign private issuer.” As a foreign private issuer, we will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic registrants whose securities are registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).

We are responsible for the information contained in this prospectus. Neither we, the Selling Shareholders nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared, and neither we, the Selling Shareholders nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. We, the Selling Shareholders and the underwriters are not making an offer to sell, or seeking offers to buy, these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than its date, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the ADSs.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, the terms “Oatly,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” and “our business” refer to Oatly Group AB, together with its consolidated subsidiaries as a consolidated entity. When we refer to “plant-based dairy” throughout this prospectus, we are referring to “plant-based dairy alternatives.”

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

Within this prospectus, we reference information and statistics regarding the industries in which we operate, including the dairy industry. We are responsible for these statements included in this prospectus. We have obtained this information and statistics from various independent third-party sources, such as Euromonitor International Limited (“Euromonitor”) and the other third-party sources stated below. Some data and other information contained in this prospectus are also based on our own estimates and calculations, which are derived from our review and interpretation of independent sources. Data regarding the industries in which we compete and our market position and market share within these industries are inherently imprecise and are subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties beyond our control, but we believe they generally indicate size, position and market share within this industry. While we believe such information is reliable, we have not independently verified any third-party information. While we believe our internal company research and estimates are reliable, such research and estimates have not been verified by any independent source.

We commissioned a survey of the plant-based market called “Consumer Insights” in January 2021, which includes analyses of the growth of plant-based dairy alternatives in the markets in which we operate, consumer insights into plant-based dairy alternatives and brand recognition and other general trends in our industry. Where we refer to “Consumer Insights” throughout this prospectus, this reference is to the Consumer Insights survey. We have also obtained certain information from the following third-party sources:

 

   

IRI Infoscan’s “Total Chilled & Ambient Milk Alternatives category, Value Sales 52 weeks data to January 2, 2021, Total UK” (“IRI Infoscan”);

 

   

Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives, Value Sales, Grocery excl. hard discount, Germany, Full Year 2020. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives, Value Sales Market Share, Grocery excl hard discount, Germany, Full Year 2020. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives, Value Sales Growth Rate in %, Grocery excl. hard discount, Germany, Full Year 2020. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives Drinks, Value Sales Growth Rate in %, Grocery ex. hard discount, Germany, four week periods ending week 5, 2018 and four week periods ending week 52, 2020. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives Drinks, Wtd Dist, Unit ROS (Num), Grocery ex. hard discount, Germany, four week period and 52 week period ending week 52, 2019. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives Drinks, Wtd Dist, Unit ROS (Num), Grocery ex. hard discount, Germany, 4 week period and 52 week period ending week 52, 2020. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives Drinks, Value Sales Market Share, Grocery ex. hard discount, Germany, Rolling four week periods ending week 52, 2020. Nielsen, Nielsen RMS, Dairy Alternatives, % Value share of total dairy alternatives drink growth, Grocery excl. hard discount, Germany, Full Year 2020 (collectively, “Nielsen Germany”);

 

   

“NielsenIQ. Milk/Dairy Alternatives, Total US xAOC + Convenience, four weeks data to December 26, 2020” (“Nielsen USA”);

 

   

“ScanTrack, Total Grocery Sweden, Alternative Dairy Non-milk based products, Full year 2020, W.52 2020.” (Copyright Nielsen) (“Nielsen Sweden,” together with Nielsen Germany and Nielsen USA, collectively, “Nielsen”);

 

   

The Lancet’s “Country, regional, and global estimates for lactose malabsorption in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” which was published in October 2017 (“Lancet”); and

 

   

The Zeno Group’s “The 2020 Strength of Purpose Study,” which was published June 17, 2020 (the “Zeno Study”).

 

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In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industries’ future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors. These and other factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates. As a result, you should be aware that market, ranking and other similar industry data included in this prospectus, and estimates and beliefs based on that data, may not be reliable. Neither we, the Selling Shareholders nor the underwriters can guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any such information contained in this prospectus. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business and Industry—The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADENAMES

We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this prospectus that are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable intellectual property laws.

Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names referred to in this prospectus are without the ® and symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names. This prospectus contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

 

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PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION

This prospectus includes our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). None of our financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Certain monetary amounts, percentages, and other figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.

All references in this prospectus to “dollar,” “USD” or “$” refer to U.S. dollars, the terms “Swedish Kronor” and “SEK” refer to the legal currency of Sweden, the terms “euro,” “EUR” or “€” refer to the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of European economic and monetary union pursuant to the treaty establishing the European Community, as amended, and the terms “£” and “GBP” refer to pounds sterling.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus gives effect to a 1 for 27 forward split of our ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021. Unless otherwise indicated, all information contained in this prospectus does not give effect to: (i) the conversion of all of our outstanding class B shares into 46,797,804 ordinary shares effected on May 5, 2021, (ii) the conversion of all of our outstanding class G shares into 1,405,944 ordinary shares effected on May 5, 2021, (iii) the exercise of all of our outstanding warrants into 39,317,319 ordinary shares in connection with and prior to the consummation of this offering and (iv) the issuance of 6,124,004 ordinary shares to convert a portion of the Bridge Facilities, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00 (see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities”).

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all the information that may be important to you before deciding to invest in our ADSs, and we urge you to read this entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” sections and our consolidated audited financial statements, including the notes thereto, included in this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our ADSs.

Our Purpose

We have a bold vision for a food system that’s better for people and the planet.

We believe that transforming the food industry is necessary to face humanity’s greatest challenges across climate, environment, health and lifestyle. In parallel, change is rocking the consumer landscape, as the growing concerns for the environment and interest in health and nutrition have started to drive real, scaled behavioral changes around consumer purchase choices. Generation Z and Millennials will become the dominant global generations in the coming years, bringing to the market a new set of values and expectations. These combined factors are driving a clear rapid, accelerating growth and influx of new consumers to the plant-based dairy market.

In this context, Oatly has become a leading, innovative force with a clear point of view on things that we believe consumers really care about—sustainability and health. We are a solution that enables people make thoughtful, informed choices in line with these values.

We believe our company is leading the transformation of the global dairy market—which is worth approximately $600 billion in the retail channel alone as of 2020. Behind our products are decades of scientific heritage, deep expertise around oats, production craftsmanship and commercially proven innovation in matters of sustainability and human health. Our brand rightfully stands out on a competitive dairy shelf, bringing a unique voice to the industry. Purpose drives our organization forward.

About Oatly

We are the world’s original and largest oatmilk company. For over 25 years, we have exclusively focused on developing expertise around oats: a global power crop with inherent properties suited for sustainability and human health. Our commitment to oats has resulted in core technical advancements that enabled us to unlock the breadth of the dairy portfolio, including milks, ice cream, yogurt, cooking creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks.

 

Traditional food production is one of the biggest drivers of environmental impact. Food production uses about half of all habitable land on earth, requires large amounts of resources, emits greenhouse gases and harms biodiversity. At the same time, today’s food system—and often our eating habits—does not meet our nutritional needs, driving the prevalence of non-communicable diseases like malnutrition, obesity and heart and vascular diseases. Through our products and actions as a company, we work to grow the plant-based movement and help people shift from traditional dairy to plant-based products and enact positive societal and industry change.

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Sustainability is at the core of our business and actionable in our products: on average, a liter of Oatly product consumed in place of cow’s milk results in around 80% less greenhouse gas emissions, 79% less land usage and 60% less energy consumption. This equation is our primary mechanism for impact. Our products make it easy for people to turn what they eat and drink into personal moments of healthy joy without excessively taxing the planet’s resources in the process. Beyond the inherent properties of our products, we execute a sustainability agenda across our value chain that encompasses agriculture, innovation, production, advertising and more. Sustainability at Oatly is far more than achieving certain key performance indicators and corporate policies—it is a mindset that helps us navigate business decisions and build a culture that is singularly focused on pushing the boundaries of the plant-based movement.

In the historically commoditized dairy category, we have created a brand phenomenon that speaks to emerging consumer priorities of sustainability, trust and health. Our integrated in-house team of creative, communications and customer relations experts reach consumers in a way that is honest and human. Across many kinds of media, we create thought-provoking, conversation-sparking content to engage people around our mission and drive awareness for the brand. Our company values are communicated not only in the things we say, but also in the things we do—like putting carbon impact labels on our packaging and launching public campaigns to inspire policy change. The voice, actions, products and values represented by the Oatly brand drive our commercial success and mission.

Our innovation practices are foundational to delivering market-leading products. Oatly was founded in the 1990s by food scientists on a mission to make the best possible form of milk for human beings and the planet. Rather than modifying cow’s milk itself or mimicking its nutritional profile in a new product, we sought powerful plant-based ingredients—in particular, the strong nutritional and sustainability elements of oats. Today, we remain steadfast in our goal of creating excellent products across the full dairy portfolio, from milk, to yogurts, to ice cream. To do so, we leverage proprietary production processes and key patented elements, including enzymatic processes, to convert fiber-rich oats into great tasting products. A deep understanding of oats as a raw material and product ingredient allows us to deliver on a holistic set of product dimensions like taste, nutritional composition and sustainability profile. We believe our recent product launches in categories such as yogurt and frozen desserts shows the strength of our results-oriented innovation practices and the potential to drive a significant volume shift to plant-based dairy across the full breadth of the dairy portfolio.

Driving the global appetite for plant-based dairy

We have proven global resonance with commercial success in more than 20 markets, across multiple channels and types of retail, foodservice and e-commerce partners. As of December 31, 2020, we offered dozens of product lines and varieties across approximately 60,000 retail doors and 32,200 coffee shops. Our products are sold through a variety of channels, from independent coffee shops to continent-wide partnerships with established franchises like Starbucks, from food retailers like Target and Tesco to premium natural grocers and corner stores, as well as through e-commerce channels, such as Alibaba’s Tmall. To enter new markets, we use a foodservice-led expansion strategy that builds awareness and loyalty for our brand through the specialty coffee market and ultimately drives increased sales through retail channels. We have tailored this strategy in many successful international market launches, including the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States and China.

Our growth in China demonstrates the effectiveness of this expansion strategy. We successfully entered the Chinese market in 2018 through the specialty coffee and tea channel, which we have since scaled to over 8,000 doors at the end of 2020. As a result of the consumer excitement we built around the Oatly brand with this launch, we were able to rapidly scale our regional presence through a strategic e-commerce partnership with Alibaba and an exclusive branded partnership with Starbucks in China, with over 4,700 locations in China exclusive to us as of December 31, 2020. Within approximately two years of entering the Chinese market, we had over 9,500 foodservice and retail points of sale in total with a growth rate of over 450% as of December 31, 2020.



 

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We have built a new generation of plant-based milk consumers by converting traditional dairy milk drinkers to Oatly and by attracting new drinkers to the category altogether. The awareness and in-context trial achieved in the specialty coffee and tea channel was critical to educate the market about plant-based dairy and establish our leadership in the region.

Our brand has excelled on a global scale, as evidenced by the following market statistics:

 

   

In 2020, Oatly contributed the highest amount of sales growth to the dairy alternatives drinks category across each of our key markets - the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden.

 

   

In our home market of Sweden, we had a 53% market share of the total sales in the alternative dairy products non-milk based category as of 2020, according to Nielsen.

 

   

In the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden, we are the highest selling brand in the oat category by retail sales value, which is the largest category within dairy alternatives in the United Kingdom and Germany and is the fastest-growing category within the United States.

 

   

Our 2020 year-over-year retail sales growth rates were 99% in the United Kingdom, according to IRI Infoscan, 199% in Germany and 182% in the United States, according to Nielsen. Our growth led the increase in demand for oat-based products. Since 2018, when we launched our new retail strategy in Germany, oatmilk’s market share of sales in the retail plant-based dairy category has grown from approximately 23% for the rolling four week period ended January 2018 to approximately 60% for the rolling four week period ended December 2020, according to Nielsen.

We also believe that global demand for Oatly products has far outpaced our supply. As we continue to scale, we have a significant opportunity to satisfy unmet demand and leverage our brand success to expand our product portfolio.

We believe we are only at the beginning of the transformation of the overall global dairy market, which totals approximately $600 billion in retail value as of 2020, with a large foodservice footprint and burgeoning e-commerce opportunity. In order to support a societal shift towards plant-based diets, we understand that it is critical to invest in manufacturing capabilities to support our growth. As we grow, we believe owning and controlling our global operating footprint is paramount to addressing the significant consumer demand we have faced, since this enables us to apply our own standards of quality, sustainability and flexibility for innovation, while achieving more attractive production economics, as demonstrated by our fully owned manufacturing capabilities in Sweden. Globally, as of March 31, 2021, we had four Oatly factories online and three factories planned or under construction. We supplement our owned factories with a diversified network of deeply vetted third-party co-manufacturing partners that help us drive growth by providing the necessary speed and flexibility and improve our ability to meet consumer demand, commence pilot projects and support our new product launches.

Our historical financial performance reflects the scaled and global growth profile of our company. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we reported revenue of $140.1 million, a 66.2% increase from $84.2 million in the same period in 2020. In 2020, we reported revenue of $421.4 million, a 106.5% increase from $204.0 million in 2019. This growth outpaces our year-over-year growth in 2019 of 72.9%, representing our accelerating momentum. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we generated gross profit of $41.9 million, representing a margin of 29.9% and a loss for the period of $32.4 million. In 2020, we generated gross profit of $129.2 million representing a margin of 30.7% and, as a result of our continued focus on our growth, a loss for the year of $60.4 million, reflecting our continued investment in production, brand awareness, new markets and product development. Going forward, we intend to continue to invest in our innovation capabilities, build our manufacturing footprint and expand our consumer base, all supporting our growth trajectory.



 

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Revenue ($MM)(1)    Gross Profit ($MM)(1)
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2020 Sales By Region    2020 Sales Split By Channel
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(1)

Revenue and gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2018 are management’s estimates that were derived from our audited Swedish consolidated annual report in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in Sweden. The amounts presented were converted to U.S. dollars and adjusted for comparability with IFRS, and these adjustments have not been audited or reviewed. The estimates may differ from the amounts that would have been presented if our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 had been prepared in accordance with IFRS. Revenue and gross profit for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 were prepared in accordance with IFRS and have been audited. See our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

(2)

Foodservice includes coffee and tea shops.

(3)

Other includes e-commerce.

Our History

Our history begins in the 1990s in Sweden, where a group of scientists at Lund University were exploring the mechanisms and effects of lactose intolerance. Research had made clear that an estimated two-thirds of the global population cannot process cow’s milk due to lactose intolerance, according to Lancet. On the belief that a better milk, a milk fit for human nutrition, was possible, these scientists set out to make an alternative that could replace the traditional cow’s product without sacrificing the dairy experience. They found the solution in the base crop of oats, which are globally plentiful, familiar across cuisines, cost effective and require low-input resources relative to livestock and other plant crops, contain healthy fibers, and they developed a proprietary, patented process centered on using enzymes to break down oats into nutritious, tasty products, while retaining key fibers, leading to the launch of the world’s first oat milk in 1995. This core oat technology, as further developed and refined, continues to be the base for the majority of our products today, and we continually work to ensure our leading position in oat innovation.

We launched the first oatmilk product under the Oatly brand in 2001. We continued to develop our portfolio of products over subsequent years, including frozen dessert and cooking cream. In 2006, we set up the first Oatly factory in Landskrona, Sweden. During this time, we grew the business steadily to revenue of $29 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, as prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in Sweden and translated to U.S. dollars at a rate of SEK 1 to $0.1477.



 

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In 2012, almost 20 years after we developed our core oat technology, we appointed a new management team with a bold vision for Oatly. Chief Executive Officer Toni Petersson brought an outsider’s view to the food industry and a fresh take on the company’s mission, building from Oatly’s deep heritage of oat-based food science. They set out to build a new type of food company with core values of health and sustainability, supported by an unconventional approach to brand, commercial strategy and organizational structure.

In our home market of Sweden, Oatly products had a 53% market share of sales in the total alternative dairy products non-milk based category as of 2020, according to Nielsen. The success achieved in our home market, in terms of brand awareness and new product development, has become a clear “north star” for future international expansion. After activating the company-wide rebrand between 2013 and 2014 in the Nordics, we re-launched in the United Kingdom in 2016 through specialty cafes and coffee shops and launched a new retail strategy in Germany in 2018. In both markets, Oatly quickly drove the oat category from obscurity to surpass sales of all other plant-based milks, including almond and soy, within three years.

We continued our global expansion by entering the United States in 2017. We launched Oatly with a novel approach to the market, focused on targeting coffee’s tastemakers, professional baristas at independent coffee shops. As of December 31, 2020, within four years of entering the United States, Oatly products can be found in approximately more than 7,500 retail shops and approximately 10,000 coffee shops in the United States, and revenue from the United States was $100.0 million in 2020.

In 2018, we entered China, focusing again on penetrating specialty coffee and tea shops and quickly generating a powerful brand resonance with consumers. We have since used premier foodservice partnerships to rapidly expand across the broader Asian region and facilitate market education for consuming plant-based milks as alternatives to dairy products, particularly with coffee and tea. In Asia, as of December 31, 2020, we had a presence in approximately 11,000 coffee and tea shops and approximately more than 6,000 retail and specialty shops, including an exclusive, branded partnership with Starbucks China in over 4,700 stores.

Demand for Oatly products has grown at an incredible rate. To date, production capacity has been a major constraint on our growth, and we have made substantial investments to scale our production capacity and address supply shortages. In 2019, we opened one production facility in the United States and one in the Netherlands. In spring 2021, we will open our second U.S. facility. Three additional facilities in Singapore, Maanshan, China and Peterborough, the United Kingdom are currently under construction or in the planning stages, and we continue to expand capacity of our existing facilities.

Today, the Oatly movement continues with a growing part of the population realizing their consumption decisions can truly make a difference. We established Oatly as an organization dedicated to improving the lives of individuals and the well-being of the planet through the push for a more sustainable food system. To address the global challenges we are all facing, delicious, healthy and sustainable plant-based food and drink must become a matter of course for everyone.

Our Industry and Opportunity

The global food industry generates about 25% of the world’s total human-created climate impact. In comparison, that is significantly more than the estimated 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions generated by all global transportation combined. Animal-based products account for more than half of global food-related emissions and three-quarters of the land used for food production; however, they yield less than 20% of our globally consumed calories.

Plant-based dairy is a key solution to address global climate change and resource challenges driven by livestock-dependent industries, namely the dairy industry. At Oatly, we are committed to make it easy for people



 

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to switch from dairy to plant-based alternatives with the goal to significantly reduce the negative environmental impact.

We participate in the large global dairy industry, which consists of milk, ice cream and frozen dessert, yogurt, cream, cheese and other dairy products. According to Euromonitor, the global dairy industry retail sales were estimated to be $592 billion in 2020 and are expected to reach $789 billion in 2025, growing at a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of 5.9%. In line with retail, foodservice also represents a significant opportunity for us, which we believe expands the total addressable market even further.

Today, we primarily operate in the global milk category, which is the largest subcategory within dairy. According to Euromonitor, the global milk industry retail sales were estimated to be $179 billion in 2020, representing approximately 30% of the global dairy industry in 2020. The category is expected to reach $247 billion in 2025, growing at a CAGR of 6.6%. In some developed markets, dairy milk consumption per capita has been steadily declining, with the trend continuing in the last decade as plant-based dairy has increased in popularity. In the United States, in the last three years, 32% of consumers have reduced or stopped their dairy milk intake, while two thirds of these consumers have now shifted at least part of their dairy consumption to plant-based milk alternatives and are using these products for similar occasions as they would for animal-based dairy milk, according to Consumer Insights. We expect this trend to further accelerate in coming years, as the growing offering of plant-based dairy across the entire dairy portfolio affects other product categories as well, including ice cream, yogurt, cooking creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks.

Health, nutrition and sustainability are increasingly becoming central to what consumers value and are at the top of people’s and brands’ minds. Based on Consumer Insights, we found that 35% to 40% of the adult population have purchased plant-based milk in the last three months in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, China and Sweden, with 60% to 70% of the category’s consumers joining in the last two years alone, showing that plant-based dairy is quickly becoming mainstream and that the value proposition of these products increasingly appeals to the everyday consumer. We believe these are early signals of a movement of profound change for the large dairy market. Consumer Insights suggests that plant-based milk will continue to grow between 20% to 25% over the next three years, driven by new consumers entering the category, as well as increasing per liter consumption of existing consumers.

The global plant-based dairy industry retail sales were estimated to be $18 billion in 2020 according to Euromonitor, representing approximately 3% of the global dairy industry (excluding soy drinks in China). Within the global dairy industry, plant-based milk represented approximately 9% of the global dairy milk category (excluding soy drinks in China) in 2020. As of 2020, alternatives in other dairy categories have a penetration of less than 1%, highlighting the opportunity ahead across the broader plant-based dairy sector.

Across various plant-based dairy products, oat-based alternatives have outperformed the broader dairy category in recent years. According to Nielsen, sales of oatmilk products in the United States grew by 203% year over year from 2019 to 2020. In the United States, oatmilk products reached $267 million retail sales during 2020, making it the second largest dairy alternative after almond milk. In the United Kingdom, oatmilk reached $181 million retail sales in 2020 and is the largest dairy alternative drink, representing growth year over year of 98% of the United Kingdom in 2020, according to IRI Infoscan. Since 2018, when we launched our new retail strategy in Germany, oatmilk’s market share of sales in the retail plant-based dairy category has grown from approximately 23% for the rolling four week period ended January 2018 to approximately 60% for the rolling four week period ended January 3, 2021, according to Nielsen. In Sweden, oatmilk is the largest category in the total plant-based milk retail market, with a 72% market share for the rolling four week period ended January 3, 2021, which is predominantly driven by Oatly’s clear leadership, according to Nielsen.



 

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LOGO

 

Source:

Nielsen, IRI.

 

Notes:

Sweden Nielsen data as of week 52, 2020, U.K. IRI data as of January 2, 2021, Germany Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020 and U.S. Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020.

(1)

Market shares represent rolling four weeks periods.

(2)

Year over year growth of 52-week periods.

We believe plant-based dairy, especially oat-based dairy, will continue to experience significant growth driven by multiple secular tailwinds:

 

   

Sustainability and health as leading factors driving behavioral change and consumer choice. Consumers are increasingly aware of the environmental and health benefits of plant-based dairy, and consumer behavior is changing at scale. Compared to animal-based dairy products, plant-based dairy products have a lower environmental impact including lower greenhouse gas emissions, land and water usage. Based on Consumer Insights, the plant-based category is benefiting from consumers’ seismic shift toward more conscious eating, with approximately 60% of consumers in the United States citing that they lead a much healthier lifestyle and eat significantly healthier, while 43% mentioned they are eating more sustainable products than three years ago. Nutritional benefits of a plant-based diet, include dietary fibers (specific to oatmilk), healthy fats and eliminating dietary concerns relating to dairy. These combined nutritional and environmental benefits make plant-based alternatives an appealing choice for consumers and highlight the significant underlying global demand for plant-based dairy.

 

   

Current generations increasingly seek out brands that connect with their core values. Millennials and Generation Z make up the largest consumer group, together consisting of approximately 4.9 billion people worldwide as of the end of 2019, according to Bloomberg. These generations possess a strong understanding of health and environmental issues, and they demonstrate their focus on these issues through their on-shelf purchase decisions. According to a report published by Nielsen in January 2015, 41% of Generation Z and 32% of Millennial consumers are willing to pay a premium for healthier foods. In addition, the Zeno Study found that consumers are four to six times more likely to purchase, protect and champion purpose-driven companies, as they are looking for companies to advance progress on important issues within and outside of their operational footprint. The same study also found that consumers across generations and geographies recognized the strength and importance of purpose and indicated they would hold brands accountable. However, younger generations are leading this effort, with 92% of Generation Z and 90% of Millennials said they would act in support of a purposeful brand, according to the Zeno Study.



 

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Growing consumer demand for oat-based dairy. Retail sales data shows that Oatly is the driving force behind the increasing consumer demand for oat-based dairy products. We believe that oats are a crop uniquely positioned to achieve the goal of a better dairy portfolio, including:

 

   

Inherent sustainable characteristics: Oats are a low-input crop, which use fewer resources in the agricultural stage of production and offer the possibility for crop rotation, which has a positive impact on the soil.

 

   

Flexible within the supply chain: Oats provide a longer raw ingredient shelf life compared to dairy, while also offering a competitive price structure compared to other plant-based dairy products. The oat crop is very accessible and can be farmed all around the world, which allows us to invest in local production sites and reduce our overall supply chain costs.

 

   

Widely accessible to a range of eaters: Oats do not contain some common allergens present in other plant and nut-based products; it has a neutral taste profile, making it attractive for a wide variety of plant-based dairy use cases.

 

   

Nutritional advantages: Oats have a balanced macro-nutritional profile, which contains a high amount of dietary fiber (including beta-glucan fibers), key fatty acids and limited saturated fats.

 

   

Cultural advantages: Oats can be consumed by all cultures and are common across global cuisines.

Today, we operate in three regions: Europe, the Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”), the Americas and Asia.

 

   

EMEA. According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the plant-based dairy industry in EMEA was estimated to be $4 billion in 2020, representing 1.5% of the dairy industry, and is expected to reach $6 billion by 2025, with penetration expected to increase to 1.8%. We have a significant presence in Europe, with operations in over 15 markets, and are the leading oatmilk brand by market share in every key market in which we operate. We are the highest selling oatmilk brand in the oat category by retail sales value in Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom in grocery in the dairy alternative non-milk based category for 2020, according to Nielsen and IRI Infoscan.

 

   

Americas. According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the plant-based dairy industry in the Americas was estimated to be $5 billion in 2020, representing 2.8% of the dairy industry, and is expected to reach $7 billion by 2025, with penetration expected to increase to 3.7%. However, when looking at the non-dairy milk category, penetration is significantly higher at approximately 9% and is expected to increase to 11% by 2025, demonstrating how plant-based dairy products have become widely accepted in the region. We entered the United States in 2017 and achieved significant success across both foodservice and retail channels, despite having relatively low distribution driven by supply constraints, quickly becoming the highest selling oatmilk brand by retail sales value in grocery in the dairy alternative non-milk based category in the United States in 2020, according to Nielsen.

 

   

Asia. Asia is the largest plant-based dairy market in the world, predominately driven by traditionally high consumption of soy-based beverages, which represents more than half of the Asia plant-based milk market. Based on Consumer Insights, “new generation plant-based milk,” which are plant-based dairy products comparable to Oatly’s product offering, penetration in China was 16%; however, the use of “traditional plant-based milk,” which is sweetened or flavored plant-based milk products that are mostly used as soft drinks, is widespread, with 74% of the Chinese adult population having consumed such product in the last three months as of the date of Consumer Insights. New generation plant-based milk has been growing quickly, with 45% of consumers having joined the category in the last year, driven by growth in coffee consumption, changes in eating habits and influence from global trends of sustainability and nutrition. According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the plant-based dairy industry in Asia (excluding soy drinks in China) was estimated to be $8 billion in 2020, representing 4.7% of the dairy industry and is expected to increase moderately by 2025. Lactose intolerance is



 

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widely present in Asian countries, leading to a potential underlying demand for plant-based dairy, according to Lancet. China’s plant-based dairy market is estimated to double by 2025, partially driven by new plant-based brands such as Oatly.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following strengths differentiate us from our competitors and enable us to grow our leading market position and drive continued success, while staying committed to our sustainability priorities.

Purpose-Driven to Create a Plant-Based Sustainable Food System

Oatly is a people and planet organization guided by values that matter to people. Sustainability is intrinsic to our business model and forms the foundation of every strategic decision we make across the value chain. Our holistic, end-to-end sustainability commitment ranges from being the first company in Europe to utilize a fleet of heavy-duty electric trucks for true commercial routes to leading industry change by disclosing our per product carbon footprint on our packages. Our sustainability mindset extends beyond our operational decisions and is integrated into all of our business decisions, proven by the fact that we were the first company in the plant-based industry to issue a sustainability-linked credit facility. Rooted and validated through our research, we believe the growth of our products is an actionable solution to some of society’s greatest environmental and nutritional challenges. We are focused on driving the global appetite and market for plant-based dairy, and we are just scratching the surface. With every liter of Oatly we produce, our positive environmental and societal impact increases. We strive to drive meaningful change within the food industry by making it easier for people to turn what they eat and drink into personal moments of healthy joy, while reducing the impact on the planet’s resources in the process. Our unwavering commitment to sustainability fuels our growth.

Authentic Brand Beloved by Consumers

We believe the Oatly brand has become one of the strongest voices that stands for what consumers care about: sustainability, health and trust. We have torn down the conventional corporate approach to brand building and have developed a voice that is human, compelling and honest. We strive to not only be a product, but also a presence in our consumers’ lives by offering authenticity in a category that has traditionally cared little about sustainability. Our advertisements are bold and eye-catching, meant to drive conversation among consumers, while challenging norms and outdated industry practices. We have a trusted consumer relations function that supports initiatives and hosts events within our communities, driving our ability to initiate real dialogue across regions, cultures and among a rapidly expanding customer base.

Creativity is at the center of the Oatly brand. Through the efforts of our authentic and award-winning in-house creative team, we have cultivated a loyal consumer base that is highly aligned with our ambitions. According to Consumer Insights, we outperformed other plant-based dairy brands across the United Kingdom, United States and Germany on all factors that matter to consumers: emotional connection, sustainability and health credentials, as well as delivering on taste. We believe our strong resonance with consumers will further propel our growth and support the transition to a plant-based food system.

Market-Leading Product Portfolio Disrupting the Global Dairy Market

We are leading the effort to disrupt the $592 billion global dairy retail market. We are the highest selling oatmilk brand by retail sales value in Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom in grocery in the dairy alternative non-milk based category for 2020, according to Nielsen and IRI Infoscan. In 2020, we drove 49%, 43% and 13% of plant-based milk growth in the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States according to Nielsen and IRI Infoscan. Within our core markets of Sweden, the United Kingdom and Germany, our brand contributed the most sales growth to the plant-based milk category in 2020.



 

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LOGO

 

Source:

Nielsen, IRI.

Notes:

U.K. IRI data as of January 2, 2021, Germany Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020 and U.S. Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020.

(1)

Market shares in the total plant-based milk category represent rolling four weeks period.

(2)

Calculated as the sales value increase for Oatly divided by the sales value increase for the total plant-based milk category for the full year 2020 in the absolute dollar amount.

(3)

Dairy Alternatives.

We have demonstrated global commercial success through our expansion into more than 20 markets across three continents. We believe our sustainable, nutritious and tasty products are accelerating the adoption of plant-based dairy by converting traditional dairy consumers into Oatly fans. Our loyal consumer base has supported and driven our extension beyond just the plant-based dairy category, and we currently have a broad product portfolio across seven categories that includes frozen desserts, Oatgurt, creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks. As evidenced by the commercial success of previous product category launches, our consumers desire further category innovation, providing us with a basis to continue converting cow milk consumers across occasions and disrupt the animal-based dairy industry.

Unparalleled Innovation Capabilities Grounded in 25 Years of Patented Technologies, Craftsmanship and Oat Expertise

Oatly was founded by food scientists on a mission to create an upgraded alternative to traditional dairy. They had simple goals: first, to make a plant-based dairy that was in tune with the needs of both humans and the planet, and second, to make it taste delicious. We launched the world’s first oatmilk product in 1995 and have been the only company focused solely on liquid oat technology for more than 25 years, working to put forward the best possible version of milk. Through our commitment to oats, we have developed a proprietary oat base production technology that leverages patented enzymatic processes to turn oats into a nutritional, great tasting liquid product. Our patents are supplemented with and protected by decades of production craftsmanship and a global innovation organization.

Our production processes are built from our deep understanding of the oat from the raw material level: we work closely with our oat suppliers to ensure oats are cultivated properly through different seasons and conditions, and we understand how the natural variances in agriculture may impact our raw ingredients and products. We have exclusive partnerships with industry leaders to analyze entire oat genomes and genes to identify naturally occurring variances that help us improve on product nutritional qualities (specific protein and beta-glucan fiber profiles), technological properties (process improvements) and agronomic properties (yield and resilience). We look to science to inform our point of view on how to build our products for health and nutritional outcomes.



 

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We continue to invest in our innovation capabilities through the expansion of our Food Innovation team on a global as well as regional level, and through our Research Hubs in Sweden and Singapore, which are currently under development, with target opening dates in 2022. These Research Hubs will further develop our long-term innovation capabilities as well as continue to conduct clinical studies on the effect of oat-based products for metabolic syndromes and personalized nutritional needs of children.

We believe our innovation capabilities enable us to deliver on our promise of sustainable, delicious and nutritious products—supporting our mission to make plant-based eating easy and position us for long-term market leadership.

Multi-Channel Distribution Led by Proven Foodservice Strategy

Our successful channel penetration and execution across geographies starts with our specialty foodservice-led market entry strategy that builds awareness of our brand and products. Consumers discover Oatly in a trusted environment such as an expertly brewed cup of coffee or cappuccino from their favorite coffee shop. That quality product experience sparks a discovery journey for consumers with Oatly that can lead to purchase at a grocery store or incorporating more plant-based options in their diet. Importantly, this strategy is very difficult to replicate given this channel’s fragmented and opaque distribution networks and has only been made possible by our on-the-ground teams that understand the nuances of this channel in each specific market. While this strategy is currently best exemplified in our coffee channel through our barista relationships, we believe it is replicable across products categories through respective category foodservice channels. We are currently expanding this strategy in partnerships with multi-unit independents and large coffee chains to further drive the momentum of Oatly into new international markets.

The consumer buzz that we generate through the specialty foodservice channel creates a pull-through effect into broader foodservice, food retail and e-commerce channels. As of December 31, 2020, our products are available in approximately 60,000 retail doors and 32,200 coffee shops across more than 20 countries globally. Our recent branded partnership with Starbucks as the exclusive oatmilk provider in China and the United States has resulted in distribution through more than 8,000 locations, which is indicative of our broad appeal and will be important to driving wide-scale adoption. We have successfully expanded our distribution from niche foodservice concepts to mainstream retail partnerships with conventional and natural grocer channels, including Walmart, Target, Whole Foods, Kroger and Tesco, to reach more of the consumer base. We have scaled e-commerce platforms in China and the United Kingdom, where our e-commerce business accounts for 21% of our revenue in China for 2020, where we are the #1 oatmilk brand on Tmall, which represents a larger percentage of sales compared to other markets, with the opportunity to be deployed in all of our markets.

Visionary Leadership Focused on People and Planet

We have an experienced and passionate executive team that has helmed the acceleration of our growth and set our strategic direction, all underpinned by a unified purpose of sustainability. Under the leadership of our Chief Executive Officer Toni Petersson, who joined in 2012, we have strategically transformed from a producer of plant-based dairy into a purpose-driven brand, have nearly increased revenue six fold from 2017 to $421.4 million in 2020 and have successfully entered the United States, the broader Western European region and Asia Pacific. Oatly has a deep bench of talented executives with strong business and operational experience. Our leadership team brings a fresh perspective to the food industry and challenges outdated industry practices to meet consumer desires in an authentic way. We have on-the-ground regional leaders in each of our key markets with deep knowledge of the local markets. We empower our regional leaders to tailor growth strategies that speak to local consumer needs and desires for a more sustainable-focused, plant-based offering. As we scale, our culture and mission remain central to our company in each of our regions, at all levels and across divisions. Our shared mission and core belief in driving a societal shift towards a plant-based food system unifies our company in our quest for purpose-driven growth.



 

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Our Growth Strategies

We expect to drive continued, sustainable growth and strong financial performance by executing on the following strategies:

Expand Consumer Base through Increased Awareness and Plant-Based Dairy Category Growth

The plant-based dairy market is still in its infancy. Even the most mature market and most mature category—U.S. dairy milk alternatives—has only 6% penetration compared to dairy milk by volume as of 2020, according to Euromonitor, representing significant whitespace for us to grow. Based on Consumer Insights, we found that 35% to 40% of the adult population is now purchasing dairy milk alternatives, indicating that the penetration of, and familiarity with, the category is high, creating growth opportunities from increased frequency and usage. Furthermore, almost 70% individuals purchasing dairy milk alternatives have started purchasing the product within the last two years, demonstrating the accelerating trajectory of the category and growth potential from further penetration. According to Consumer Insights, over the next three years, the dairy milk alternatives category is expected to grow 19% to 25% in our core markets, with approximately 40% of that growth from new users and the remainder from increased consumption of current users.

We believe the ability to share the Oatly story with a broader audience is critical to the success of our mission to drive greater plant-based consumption. At precisely the moment when these values are hitting mainstream culture, we are dissolving the barriers to adoption of plant-based dairy and capturing this interest by engaging consumers with our brand. While Oatly is the best-selling oatmilk in each of our key markets, we believe significant room for growth exists by increasing our penetration of the global dairy industry. We leverage research to help educate consumers on the environmental and health benefits of oat-based dairy as compared to cow-based dairy. We believe our authentic, transparent and sustainability-driven brand has become a trusted voice among our consumers and retail partners, which in turn, has driven Oatly’s success across each of our markets. We believe our commercial efforts and proven execution to increase knowledge and awareness of the Oatly brand will enable us to capture more of the total addressable market, with the end result of reaching and inspiring a wide range of consumers from dairy loyalists to lifelong vegans to eat in a way that is not only better for their health, but also better for our planet.

Grow Distribution and Velocity in New and Existing Markets

We will leverage the significant demand for Oatly products to grow in new and existing markets. We believe we can continue to build on industry-leading food retail performance by growing velocity and expanding on-shelf presence with Oatly’s full portfolio. Our accelerating performance in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, where we have consistently increased velocity, is indicative of the potential we see across each of our international markets, including China. Furthermore, there is significant whitespace to expand our foodservice and food retail locations within our existing markets. The food retail channel, in particular, has welcomed Oatly on shelves as we have driven incremental profit, traffic and premiumization in a milk category that was shifting towards private label. Our TDP share, which represents our brand’s total distribution points (“TDP”) as a percentage of the total oatmilk category distribution points, of 40%, 32% and 13% in the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States, respectively, indicates the significant upside in our existing markets. As of December 31, 2020, our oatmilk product was sold in 32,200 coffee shops and at approximately 60,000 retail doors, representing a fraction of the total addressable retail locations.



 

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United Kingdom    Germany    United States
LOGO    LOGO    LOGO

 

Source: Nielsen IRI Infoscan. United Kingdom periods ended week 52, 2019 and 2020 (January 2, 2020 and January 2, 2021). Germany periods ended week 52, 2019 and 2020. United States periods ended week 52, 2019 and 2020 (December 28, 2019 and December 26, 2020).

 

  (1)

Reflects Oatly’s top selling stock keeping unit (“SKU”) by sales value (GBP) for the 52 weeks ended January 2, 2021: Oatly Barista Edition, Ambient, Non-organic, Plain, 1L velocity in the United Kingdom for the last four week periods.

  (2)

Reflects Oatly’s top selling stock keeping unit by sales value (EUR) for the 52 weeks ended week 52, 2020: Oatly Barista Edition, Hafer, 1L TBRI velocity in Germany for the last four week periods.

  (3)

Reflects Oatly’s top selling stock keeping unit by sales value (USD) for the 52 weeks ended December 26, 2020: Oatly Chilled, 64 fl oz velocity in the United States for the last four week periods.

  (4)

Velocity means the average volume of sales per store per week measured in units.

  (5)

% Distribution Share of Total Selling Points represents Oatly’s brand level total number of selling points (aggregate number of selling stores per SKU) as a percent of the total dairy-alternative milk industry’s number of selling points (aggregate number of selling stores per SKU) for the full year period. In the United Kingdom, the dairy alternative milk industry’s total number of selling points equaled 331,019 and 400,561 for 2019 and 2020, respectively, and Oatly’s total number of selling points equaled 23,606 and 42,463 for 2019 and 2020, respectively. In Germany, the dairy alternative milk industry’s total number of selling points equaled 567,883 and 660,248 for 2019 and 2020, respectively, and Oatly’s total number of selling points equaled 32,870 and 65,160 for 2019 and 2020, respectively. In the United States, the dairy-alternative milk industry’s total number of selling points equaled 2,376,320 and 2,300,960 for 2019 and 2020, respectively, and Oatly’s total number of selling points equaled 18,014 and 28,027 for 2019 and 2020, respectively.

  (6)

Calculated as the sales value increase for Oatly divided by the sales value increase for the total plant-based milk category for the full year 2020 in the absolute dollar amount.

Beyond our existing footprint, we believe we have a significant opportunity to expand into new international markets, which represent $272 billion of the global retail dairy market as of 2020. We believe we are well positioned to enter new markets due to our established global presence and proven execution in three continents. In Europe, we are only in the early stages of development in many of the continent’s largest dairy markets: Spain, France and Italy, representing a $53 billion in dairy market retail opportunity as of 2020. We plan to leverage our proven foodservice-led strategy to encourage trial, generate strong consumer buzz and create strong pull into the food retail channel, driving exponential growth. With increasing health awareness and attention on sustainability among younger generations and long history of plant-based food consumption, we expect accelerating growth in new markets.

We believe the Asia region, with a primary focus on China, represents one of our largest near term opportunities. In China, following our foodservice-led strategy executed in the specialty coffee and tea channel, as of December 31, 2020, we had more than 8,200 points of sale in the channel, including an exclusive branded Starbucks partnership with 4,700 locations in China exclusive to us and partnerships with other renowned shops



 

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such as Manner, Tim Hortons, Peet’s, Costa and HEYTEA. We are further expanding our footprint in the foodservice channel and increasing our food retail presence in China. We have also scaled our e-commerce presence through strategic partnership with Alibaba’s Tmall to increase our reach.

As evidenced by our successful expansion into more than 20 countries across three continents, we believe our ability to execute upon our foodservice-led market entry strategy will bolster our growth as we continue to enter new markets in the near and long term.

Invest in Global Operating Footprint to Support Scaled Growth Opportunity

We believe the greatest constraint on our growth has been production capacity. Historically, global demand for Oatly products has significantly outpaced our supply. In order to meet this demand, we operated four production facilities as of March 2021 and plan to open three additional facilities in the near term. Our strategy is to further execute upon our proven track record and continue to build our production capabilities across each of our regions. By increasing our production capacity, we expect to be able to drive topline growth and increase our ability to meet the existing consumer demand. Furthermore, our proven end-to-end manufacturing operations in Sweden demonstrates that our investment in owned manufacturing capabilities will drive an improved margin profile due to more favorable economics. While our long-term strategy is to own and operate a self-sufficient global operating footprint, we realize that in the interim, we must create innovative solutions to meet our growing demand. Accordingly, we currently utilize multiple production solutions to help address demand by supplementing our end-to-end self-manufacturing with co-packing. Co-packers provide critical and flexible support to drive volumes with speed, and this method will remain an important part of our production setup as we continue to launch new product categories and formats.

Ultimately, we believe our long-term strategy of operating end-to-end manufacturing facilities delivers control over our footprint that is necessary to meet our speed-to-market, sustainability, economic and innovation goals. Specific competitive advantages of this strategy include: secured production capacity in an increasingly competitive market; end-to-end process control ensuring product quality; control over equipment and processes related to sustainability; and proximity to consumer end markets to drive attractive production economics. We believe we are still in the early stages of the inevitable transition to a plant-based food system and will continue to invest in our production capabilities to spearhead this consumer movement.

Extend Product Offerings through Innovation

We continually strive to improve upon our products in order to deliver the most innovative, nutritious, sustainable and delicious form of liquid oats. We take a long-term, thoughtful approach to research that informs our product decisions and is differentiated from the marketplace. Due to our scientific heritage and proven execution, we believe we are well positioned to leverage research and innovation to solve societal problems. We are redefining the future of the plant-based dairy industry, focusing our research and innovation in key areas such as improving the nutrition, taste, functionality and health effects of our products. We have ambitious, long-term innovation goals, which we believe will lead to sustained market leadership through the use of cutting edge processes to deliver the advanced products.

We are able to bridge the research to the desired commercial outcome due to our knowledge of the oat genome and production craftsmanship, allowing us to solve for elements related to process, taste and health in order to achieve our sustainability and nutritional goals. We tailor our products to local consumer demands and further facilitate the consumer transition from cow-based dairy products to Oatly. We directly target dairy consumption by mirroring the traditional dairy portfolio in look, feel, taste and function. For example, within the retail channel we show a one-to-one equivalency between oat and dairy by mirroring dairy’s chilled section and product profiles (for example, low-fat to full-fat) and flavors (such as original and chocolate). We believe the



 

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past success of our new product introductions as well as our consumer brand loyalty will drive the successful launch of new products. Furthermore, we have significant runway to roll out our full product portfolio in our existing markets, which is limited by supply constraints. With our continued investment in innovative and patented technologies, we aim to facilitate our consumers’ transition from cow-based dairy products to Oatly and strive to empower them to choose solutions that improve their lives and the planet.

Continuing Commitment to Doing Right by the Planet

As a people and planet organization, our goal is to drive a positive societal shift towards a more sustainable food system, rooted in plant-based eating, by putting sustainability at the core of our strategy and products. In driving this change, we ensure that sustainability is built into every level of our supply chain, from agriculture to packaging, because a plant-based system will only be as sustainable as the processes used to build it. We are a new generation company appealing to a new generation of consumers. The current food system requires change, and we strive to be a driving force behind this change. We are actionably addressing society’s greatest sustainability and health problems, and for that, we believe we will find further success in the marketplace. As a company, we have been on this mission for decades and are not bound by the traditional interests or structures of the food industry. Thus, we have the ability to creatively form our future to address, and adapt to, societal challenges. Due to our powerful voice and authentic and clear brand values, we believe we are well-positioned to capture the tailwinds created from these changing consumer behaviors. Buoyed by our commercial success, we strive to serve as a proof point of sustainable investing and trigger a broader shift of capital deployment towards green initiatives and a greener future. As we grow, our commitment to our mission becomes even stronger and more important and impactful. Our purpose fuels our growth, and in turn, our growth fuels progress towards a more sustainable food system.

Concurrent Private Placements

Concurrently with, and subject to, the consummation of this offering, three of our non-affiliate existing shareholders, Luxor, Santo Domingo Group and K2, have agreed to purchase $87.0 million, $31.0 million and $17.0 million, respectively, of ADSs, at a price per ADS equal to the initial public offering price, from some of the holders of our outstanding warrants, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, which will be exercised in connection with and prior to the completion of this offering (the “Concurrent Private Placements”). Our chief executive officer and chief financial officer will sell 1,290,181 and 125,786 ordinary shares received upon exercise of warrants, respectively, in the Concurrent Private Placements, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS. The proceeds to the warrant holders will principally be used to finance the exercise price of the warrants, including a total of $3.0 million in loan and interest payments owed by some of our employees, and to satisfy related tax liabilities. All of the outstanding warrants will be exercised prior to the completion of this offering, otherwise they expire with no value. We will not receive any proceeds from the Concurrent Private Placements, other than $43.3 million in proceeds from the payment of the exercise price for the warrants, as well as the repayment of any outstanding loans owed to us by some of the warrant holders.

K2, Luxor and Santo Domingo Group have each agreed to a lock-up agreement with the underwriters pursuant to which the ADSs purchased in the Concurrent Private Placements will be locked up for a period of 180 days, subject to certain exceptions.

Corporate Information

We were founded in 1994, and our current holding company was incorporated in accordance with Swedish law on October 5, 2016 under the name Goldcup 13678 AB and were registered with the Swedish Companies Registration Office on October 20, 2016. On December 21, 2016, we changed our name to Havre Global AB and on March 1, 2021, we changed our name to Oatly Group AB.



 

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Our principal executive offices are located at Jagaregatan 4, 211 19 Malmö, Sweden. Our telephone number at this address is +46 418 475500. Our website address is https://www.oatly.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of, and shall not be incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.

Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, should evaluate the specific factors set forth under the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus in deciding whether to invest in our ADSs. Among these important risks are the following:

 

   

our history of losses and inability to achieve or sustain profitability;

 

   

reduced or limited availability of oats or other raw materials that meet our quality standards;

 

   

failure to obtain additional financing to achieve our goals or failure to obtain necessary capital when needed on acceptable terms;

 

   

damage or disruption to our production facilities;

 

   

harm to our brand and reputation as the result of real or perceived quality or food safety issues with our products;

 

   

our ability to successfully compete in our highly competitive markets;

 

   

reduction in the sales of our oatmilk varieties;

 

   

failure to expand our manufacturing and production capacity as we grow our business;

 

   

our ability to successfully remediate the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting;

 

   

through our largest shareholder, Nativus Company Limited, entities affiliated with China Resources Verlinvest Health Investment Ltd. will continue to have significant influence over us after this offering, including significant influence over decisions that require the approval of shareholders; and

 

   

as a foreign private issuer, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.

Implications of Being an “Emerging Growth Company” and a “Foreign Private Issuer”

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible, for up to five years, to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other publicly traded entities that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

 

   

the ability to present more limited financial data, including presenting only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of selected financial data in the registration statement on Form F-1 of which this prospectus is a part;

 

   

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Section 404”);

 

   

not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);



 

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not being required to submit certain executive compensation matters to stockholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency” and “say-on-golden parachutes;” and

 

   

not being required to disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the chief executive officer’s compensation to median employee compensation.

We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. As a result, we do not know if some investors will find our ADSs less attractive. The result may be a less active trading market for our ADSs, and the price of our ADSs may become more volatile.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion; (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of this offering; (iii) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ADSs that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter; or (iv) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities during any three-year period.

Upon consummation of this offering, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specific information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

Foreign private issuers, like emerging growth companies, are also exempt from certain more stringent executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company but remain a foreign private issuer, we will continue to be exempt from the more stringent compensation disclosures required of public companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer.



 

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The Offering

 

ADSs offered by us

64,688,000 ADSs, each representing one ordinary share

 

ADSs offered by the Selling Shareholders

19,688,000 ADSs, each representing one ordinary share

 

Option to purchase additional ADSs

The Selling Shareholders have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to 12,656,400 additional ADSs representing 12,656,400 additional ordinary shares within 30 days of the date of this prospectus.

 

Ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering

591,835,216 ordinary shares after giving effect to (i) the conversion of all of our outstanding class B shares into 46,797,804 ordinary shares effected on May 5, 2021, (ii) the conversion of all of our outstanding class G shares into 1,405,944 ordinary shares effected on May 5, 2021, (iii) the exercise of all of our outstanding warrants into 39,317,319 ordinary shares in connection with and prior to the consummation of this offering and (iv) the issuance of 6,124,004 ordinary shares to convert a portion of the Bridge Facilities, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00, as described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities.

 

Concurrent private placements

Concurrently with, and subject to, the consummation of this offering, three of our non-affiliate existing shareholders, Luxor, Santo Domingo Group and K2, have agreed to purchase $87.0 million, $31.0 million and $17.0 million, respectively, of ADSs, at a price per ADS equal to the initial public offering price, from some of the holders of our outstanding warrants, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, which will be exercised in connection with and prior to the completion of this offering. The proceeds to the warrant holders will principally be used to finance the exercise price of the warrants, including a total of $3.0 million in loan and interest payments owed by some of our employees, and to satisfy related tax liabilities. All of the outstanding warrants will be exercised prior to the completion of this offering, otherwise they expire with no value. We will not receive any proceeds from the Concurrent Private Placements, other than $43.3 million in proceeds from the payment of the exercise price for the warrants, as well as the repayment of any outstanding loans owed to us by some of the warrant holders.

 

Indication of Interest

Baillie Gifford, acting on behalf of a number of its clients, has indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $500 million of ADSs in this offering at a price per ADS equal to the initial public



 

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offering price. However, because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, Baillie Gifford could determine to purchase more, less or no ADSs in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ADSs to Baillie Gifford. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ADSs purchased by Baillie Gifford as they will from any other ADSs sold to the public in this offering.

 

American Depositary Shares

The underwriters will deliver 84,376,000 ADSs representing our ordinary shares. Each ADS represents one of our ordinary shares.

 

  As an ADS holder, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders. The depositary, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and all holders and beneficial owners of ADSs thereunder. You may surrender your ADSs to the depositary and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares pursuant to the limitations set forth in the deposit agreement. The depositary will charge you fees for, among other items, any such surrender for the purpose of withdrawal. As described in the deposit agreement, we and the depositary may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. Any amendment that imposes or increases fees or charges or which materially prejudices any substantial existing right you have as an ADS holder will not become effective as to outstanding ADSs until 30 days after notice of the amendment is given to ADS holders. If you continue to hold your ADSs, you agree to be bound by the terms of the deposit agreement then in effect. To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the “Description of American Depositary Shares” section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

Depositary

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.

 

Custodian

Nordea Bank Abp

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately $1,038.1 million, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ADSs by the Selling Shareholders.

 

 

We intend to use $188.3 million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the SLL Agreement in full, $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, of the net proceeds from this offering to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities (see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities”) and the remainder



 

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of the net proceeds from this offering for working capital, to fund incremental growth, including our planned expansion, and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Dividend policy

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider before deciding to invest in our ADSs.

 

Directed Share Program

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 4,218,800 ADSs, or 5% of the ADSs offered by this prospectus, for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to certain individuals identified by our officers and directors. The number of ADSs available for sale to the general public will be reduced to the extent that such persons purchase such reserved ADSs. Any reserved ADSs not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same basis as the other ADSs offered by this prospectus. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC will administer our directed share program. See the sections titled “Related Party Transactions,” “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting (Conflicts of interest)—Directed Share Program.

 

Listing

Our ADSs have been approved for listing on Nasdaq under the symbol “OTLY.”

 

Conflicts of interest

An affiliate of Rabo Securities USA, Inc., an underwriter in this offering, is a selling shareholder in this offering. As a result of the foregoing relationship, Rabo Securities USA, Inc. is deemed to have a “conflict of interest” within the meaning of FINRA Rule 5121. Accordingly, this offering will be made in compliance with the applicable provisions of FINRA Rule 5121. Pursuant to that rule, the appointment of a qualified independent underwriter is not necessary in connection with this offering. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5121(c), no sales of the shares will be made to any discretionary account over which Rabo Securities USA, Inc. exercises discretion without the prior specific written approval of the account holder.

The number of our ordinary shares to be outstanding excludes 69,496,515 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our long-term incentive plan as described in “Management—2021 Incentive Award.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information contained in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:

 

   

a 1 for 27 forward split of our ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; and

 

   

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs in this offering.



 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB. The summary historical consolidated financial information presented for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary historical consolidated financial data as of March 31, 2021 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 has been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for a fair presentation of the results of the unaudited interim periods. Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results expected in any future period.

The financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, “Selected Consolidated Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Capitalization,” “Risk Factors” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     Three Months Ended March 31,     Year Ended December 31,  
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
    

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations:

        

Revenue

   $ 140,052     $ 84,244     $ 421,351     $ 204,047  

Cost of goods sold

     (98,118     (56,961     (292,107     (137,462
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     41,934       27,283       129,244       66,585  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Research and development expenses

     (3,092     (1,179     (6,831     (4,310

Selling, general and administrative expenses

     (66,807     (30,841     (167,792     (93,443

Other operating (expense)/income

     (550     (434     (1,714     409  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

     (28,515     (5,171     (47,093     (30,759
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Finance income and expenses, net

     (1,920     (2,650     (10,857     (3,608
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before tax

     (30,435     (7,821     (57,950     (34,367
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax expense

     (1,948     (352     (2,411     (1,258
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss for the period, attributable to shareholders of the parent

   $ (32,383   $ (8,173   $ (60,361   $ (35,625
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic and diluted loss per ordinary share

     (0.07     (0.02     (0.13     (0.09

Weighted average ordinary shares outstanding (basic and diluted)

     480,299,949       433,502,145       454,266,908       407,344,383  

 

     Three Months Ended March 31,     Year Ended December 31,  
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
    

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows:

                           

Net cash used in operating activities

   $ (29,200   $ 718     $ (44,308   $ (39,117

Net cash used in investing activities

     (48,950     (28,666     (141,373     (64,686

Net cash from financing activities

         62,402       73,666       273,907       95,541  


 

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     As at March 31, 2021  
     Actual      As Adjusted(1)  
     (in thousands)  

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position:

     

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 88,605      $ 1,016,784  

Total assets

     753,737        1,676,640  

Total liabilities

     470,385        214,473  

Total equity attributable to shareholders of the parent

     283,352        1,462,167  

 

     Three Months Ended
March 31,
    Year Ended
December 31,
 
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
    

(in thousands)

 

Other Financial Data:

                                                                                  

Adjusted EBITDA(2)

   $ (22,470   $ (1,306   $ (32,282   $ (20,743

 

(1)

As adjusted to give effect to (i) the exercise of all outstanding warrants into 39,317,319 ordinary shares prior to the consummation of this offering; (ii) the conversion of all outstanding class B shares into 46,797,804 ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; (iii) the conversion of all outstanding class G shares into 1,405,944 ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; (iv) the issuance of 64,688,000 ADSs in this offering at the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us; (v) an additional $50 million drawn on the SLL Agreement since March 31, 2021 and the use of $188.3 million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the SLL Agreement in full, as described under “Use of Proceeds,” (vi) the use of $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, of the net proceeds from this offering to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities, as described under “Use of Proceeds” and (vii) the issuance of 6,124,004 ordinary shares to convert a portion of the Bridge Facilities, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00, as described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities.”

(2)

Adjusted EBITDA is a financial measure that is not calculated in accordance with IFRS. We define Adjusted EBITDA as loss for the period attributable to shareholders of the parent adjusted to exclude, when applicable, income tax expense, finance expenses, finance income, depreciation and amortization expense, share-based compensation expense and IPO preparation and transaction costs.

Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to loss for the period or any other measure of financial performance calculated and presented in accordance with IFRS. There are a number of limitations related to the use of Adjusted EBITDA rather than loss for the period attributable to shareholders of the parent, which is the most directly comparable IFRS measure. Some of these limitations are:

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA excludes depreciation and amortization expense and, although these are non-cash expenses, the assets being depreciated may have to be replaced in the future increasing our cash requirements;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect interest expense, or the cash required to service our debt, which reduces cash available to us;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect income tax payments that reduce cash available to us;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect share-based compensation expenses and, therefore, does not include all of our compensation costs;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect IPO preparation and transaction costs that reduce cash available to us; and



 

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other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently, which reduces its usefulness as a comparative measure.

Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information provided in accordance with IFRS. Below we have provided a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to loss for the period attributable to shareholders of the parent, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with IFRS, for the period presented.

 

     Three Months Ended
March 31,
     Year Ended
December 31,
 
     2021      2020      2020     2019  
     (in thousands)  

Loss for the period, attributable to shareholders of the parent

     $(32,383)        $(8,173)        $(60,361     $(35,625)  

Income tax expense

     1,948        352        2,411       1,258  

Finance income and expenses, net

     1,920        2,650        10,857       3,608  

Depreciation and amortization expense

     3,822        2,851        13,118       8,094  

Share-based compensation expense

            1,014        1,014       1,922  

IPO preparation and transaction costs

     2,223               679        
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

     $(22,470)        $(1,306)        $(32,282)       $(20,743)  


 

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RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price and value of our ADSs could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses, and we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.

We have experienced net losses over the last several years. In the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we incurred net losses of $60.4 million and $35.6 million, respectively. We anticipate that our operating expenses and capital expenditures will increase substantially in the foreseeable future as we continue to invest to meet demand for our products as a result of our growth, increase our customer base, network of suppliers and co-manufacturers, expand our marketing channels and end markets, invest in our distribution and manufacturing facilities, hire additional employees, implement new manufacturing and distribution systems, expand our research and development activities and enhance our technology and production capabilities. Our expansion efforts may take longer or prove more expensive than we anticipate, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue and margins sufficiently to offset the anticipated higher expenses. We incur significant expenses in researching and developing our innovative products, building out our production and manufacturing facilities, obtaining and storing ingredients and other products and marketing the products we offer. In addition, many of our expenses, including the costs associated with our existing and any future production and manufacturing facilities, are fixed. Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability, and we may incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

Our future business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected by reduced or limited availability of oats and other raw materials that our limited number of suppliers are able to sell to us that meet our quality standards.

Our ability to ensure a continuing supply of high-quality oats and other raw materials for our products at competitive prices depends on many factors beyond our control. In particular, we rely on a limited number of regional suppliers that supply us with high-quality oats and maintain controls and procedures in order to meet our standards for quality and sustainability. Our financial performance depends in large part on our ability to arrange for the purchase of raw materials in sufficient quantities at competitive prices. We are not assured of continued supply or adequate pricing of raw materials. Any of our suppliers could discontinue or seek to alter their relationship with us.

We currently work closely with five suppliers for the oats used in our products. We purchase our oats from farmers in Sweden, Canada, the Baltic states Malaysia, and Finland through millers in Sweden, Denmark, the United States and Belgium, so our supply may be particularly affected by any adverse events in these countries. We have in the past experienced interruptions in the supply of oats from one supplier that resulted in delays in delivery to us. We could experience similar delays in the future from any of these suppliers. Any disruption in the supply of oats from these suppliers would have a material adverse effect on our business if we cannot replace these suppliers in a timely manner or at all.

We use a variety of enzymes throughout our production process, which we source from a few suppliers. We also rely on one supplier to produce an enzyme that we use to provide certain characteristics to some of our products, including our Barista Edition oatmilk. Should there be any disruptions in this supplier’s production

 

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facilities or processes, this could have a material adverse effect on our ability to consistently produce certain products in a timely manner, which could harm our reputation and relationship with our customers, as well as adversely affect our business and results of operations. While we believe we maintain a good relationship with this supplier, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue purchasing the necessary enzyme from this supplier on favorable terms, or at all, in the future. While we are exploring alternative methods of achieving these product characteristics, this may require us to expend a significant amount of time and effort to find alternative suppliers that meet our standards for quality, which could disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business.

If we need to replace an existing supplier due to bankruptcy or insolvency, lack of adequate supply, disagreements or any other reason, there can be no assurance that supplies of raw materials will be available when required on acceptable terms or at all, or that a new supplier would allocate sufficient capacity to us in order to meet our requirements or fill our orders in a timely manner. Finding a new supplier may take a significant amount of time and resources, and once we have identified such new supplier, we would have to ensure that they meet our standards for quality control and have the necessary technical capabilities, responsiveness, high-quality service and financial stability, among other things, as well as have satisfactory labor, sustainability and ethical practices that align with our values and mission. Further, any changes in our supply could result in changes in the quality of our ingredients, as we are reliant on specific biological processes, which could be adversely affected by changes in the composition of our raw materials. If we are unable to manage our supply chain effectively and ensure that our products are available to meet consumer demand, our operating costs could increase and our profit margins could decrease.

Additionally, the oats from which our products are sourced are vulnerable to adverse weather conditions and natural disasters, such as floods, droughts, frosts, earthquakes, hurricanes, pestilence and other shortages and disease, which can adversely impact quantity and quality, leading to reduced oat yields and quality, which in turn could reduce the available supply of, or increase the price of, our raw materials. The monocultures that we use are also sensitive to diseases, pests, insects and other external forces, which could pose either short term effects, such as result in a bad harvest one year, or long term effects, which could require new oat varieties to be grown. We may have general difficulties in obtaining raw materials, particularly oats, due to our high quality standards. Our suppliers may also be susceptible to interruptions in their operations, including any disruption as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or related response measures and any problems with our suppliers’ businesses, finances, labor relations, ability to import raw materials, costs, production, insurance and reputation, all of which could negatively impact our ability to obtain required quantities of oats in a timely manner, or at all, which could materially reduce our net product sales and have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Further, any negative publicity regarding the supply of our oats and other raw materials we use, such as rapeseed and coconut oil, including as a result of disease or any other contamination issues, as well as any negative publicity around the way our competitors or others in our industry obtain similar raw materials, could impact customer and consumer perception of our products, even if these issues did not directly impact our products. We continuously seek alternative sources of oats to use in our products, but we may not be successful in diversifying the oats or other raw materials we use in our products.

There is also the concern that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may have an adverse impact on global temperatures, weather patterns and the frequency and severity of extreme weather and natural disasters. If such climate change has a negative effect on agricultural productivity, we may be subject to decreased availability or less favorable pricing for oats and other raw materials that are necessary for our products. Due to climate change, we may also be subjected to decreased availability of water, deteriorated quality of water or less favorable pricing for water, which could adversely impact our manufacturing and distribution operations.

In addition, we also compete with other food companies in the procurement of oats and other raw materials, and this competition may increase in the future if consumer demand increases for these items or products containing them or if competitors increasingly offer products in these market sectors. If supplies of oats and other

 

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raw materials that meet our quality standards are reduced or are in greater demand, we may not be able to obtain sufficient supply to meet our needs on favorable terms, or at all.

Our suppliers and the availability of oats and other raw materials may also be affected by the number and size of suppliers that grow oats and other raw materials that we use, changes in global economic conditions and our ability to forecast our raw materials requirements. Many of these farmers also have alternative income opportunities and the relative financial performance of growing oats or other raw materials as compared to other potentially more profitable opportunities could affect their interest in working with us. Any of these factors could impact our ability to supply our products to customers and consumers and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may require additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, may force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product manufacturing and development and other operations.

Since our inception, substantially all of our resources have been dedicated to the development of our products, including purchases of property, plant and equipment, manufacturing facility improvements and purchases of additional manufacturing equipment, as we have historically focused on growing our business. We have a history of experiencing, and expect to continue to experience, negative cash flow from operations, requiring us to finance operations through capital contributions and debt financing. We believe that we will require significant amounts of capital in order to continue to expend substantial resources for the foreseeable future as we continue to grow and expand our production capacity and global footprint. These expenditures are expected to include costs associated with research and development, manufacturing and supply, as well as marketing and selling existing and new products. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise.

As at December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of $105.4 million and $10.6 million, respectively. Our operating plan may change because of factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned, through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, such as strategic collaborations. Such financing may result in dilution to shareholders or new equity that we issue could have rights, preferences or privileges superior to those of our ADSs, imposition of debt covenants and repayment obligations, or other restrictions that may adversely affect our business. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

 

   

continued increase in demand for our products;

 

   

the number, complexity and characteristics of any additional products or manufacturing processes we develop or acquire to serve new or existing markets;

 

   

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing future products or improvements to existing products or manufacturing processes;

 

   

any material or significant product recalls;

 

   

the expansion into new markets;

 

   

any changes in our regulatory and legislative landscape, particularly with respect to advertising, product safety, product labeling and privacy;

 

   

any lawsuits related to our products or commenced against us;

 

   

the expenses needed to attract and retain skilled personnel;

 

   

the costs associated with being a public company;

 

   

significant changes in currency exchange rates;

 

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the costs involved in preparing and filing any patents, particularly due to the speed of our expansion, as well as prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation; and

 

   

the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or royalties on, any future approved products, if any.

Additional funds may not be available when we need them, on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to:

 

   

delay, limit, reduce or terminate our efforts to increase our production capacity;

 

   

delay, limit, reduce or terminate our manufacturing, research and development activities; or

 

   

delay, limit, reduce or terminate our establishment of sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to generate revenue and achieve profitability.

The primary components of all of our products are manufactured in our four production facilities, and any damage or disruption at these facilities may harm our business.

A significant portion of our operations are located in our four production facilities as of March 2021. A natural disaster, fire, power interruption, work stoppage, labor matters (including illness or absenteeism in workforce) or other calamity at any one of these facilities and any combination thereof would significantly disrupt our ability to deliver our products and operate our business. In the future, we may also experience plant shutdowns or periods of reduced production because of regulatory issues, equipment failure, employee-related incidents that result in harm or death, delays in raw material deliveries or as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or related response measures. Any such disruption or unanticipated event may cause significant interruptions or delays in our business and the reduction or loss of inventory may render us unable to fulfill customer orders in a timely manner, or at all, and may result in lawsuits. To date, other than one closure for a few days at our Vlissingen facility in mid-April 2021, we have not closed any of our production facilities in response to the pandemic, but we have experienced delays in the construction of our new facilities in Singapore and Ogden and the expansion of our facility in Vlissingen as a result of COVID-19, and there can be no assurance that there will not be closures or additional delays in the future as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

If any material amount of our machinery or inventory were damaged, we would be unable to meet our contractual obligations and cannot predict when, if at all, we could replace or repair such machinery, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We have property and business disruption insurance in place for all of our facilities; however, such insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Our brand and reputation may be diminished due to real or perceived quality or food safety issues with our products, which could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

We believe our consumers rely on us to provide them with high-quality plant-based products. Therefore, any real or perceived quality or food safety concerns or failures to comply with applicable food regulations and requirements, whether or not ultimately based on fact and whether or not involving us (such as incidents involving our competitors), could cause negative publicity and reduced confidence in our company, brand or products, which could in turn harm our reputation and sales, and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we believe we have a rigorous quality control process, there can be no assurance that our products will always comply with the standards set for our products. For example, although we strive to keep our products free of pathogenic organisms, they may not be easily detected and cross-contamination can occur. There is no assurance that this health risk will always be preempted by our quality control processes.

 

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In addition, we are subject to a series of complex and changing food labeling and food safety regulations. These regulations could impact the way consumers view our products, such as new labeling regulations that would require us to list our certain ingredients by specific names that could confuse our consumers into thinking we may use different types of ingredients than they originally thought or that the quality of our ingredients is different to what they anticipated. Further, new labeling and food safety laws could make it more difficult for us to realize our goals of achieving a more integrated global supply chain due to the differences in regulations around the world. For example, as we continue to increase our production capacity, there is a risk that we may have to produce our products in facilities with certain allergens present, and while we take precautions to ensure that there is no cross-contamination, there can be no assurance that these precautions would be enough to protect our products from cross-contamination, and using such facilities could harm our reputation, as some of our consumers may view this as acting against our mission to provide products free of allergens.

Additionally, we have no control over our products once purchased by consumers. Accordingly, consumers may store our products improperly or for long periods of time, which may adversely affect the quality and safety of our products. While we have procedures in place to handle consumer questions and complaints, there can be no assurance that our responses will be satisfactory to consumers, which could harm our reputation. If consumers do not perceive our products to be safe or of high quality as a result of such actions outside our control or if they believe that we did not respond to a complaint in a satisfactory manner, then the value of our brand would be diminished, and our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

Any loss of confidence on the part of consumers in the ingredients used in our products or in the safety and quality of our products would be difficult and costly to overcome. Any such adverse effect could be exacerbated by our position in the market as a purveyor of high-quality plant-based products and may significantly reduce our brand value. Issues regarding the safety of any of our products, regardless of the cause, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Food safety and food-borne illness incidents or other safety concerns may materially adversely affect our business by exposing us to lawsuits, product recalls or regulatory enforcement actions, increasing our operating costs and reducing demand for our product offerings.

Selling food for human consumption involves inherent legal and other risks, and there is increasing governmental scrutiny of and public awareness regarding food safety. Unexpected side effects, illness, injury or death related to allergens, food-borne illnesses or other food safety incidents caused by products we sell or involving our suppliers or co-manufacturers, could result in the discontinuance of sales of these products or our relationships with such suppliers and co-manufacturers, or otherwise result in increased operating costs, regulatory enforcement actions or harm to our reputation. Shipment of adulterated or misbranded products, even if inadvertent, can result in criminal or civil liability. Such incidents could also expose us to product liability, negligence or other lawsuits, including consumer class action lawsuits. Any claims brought against us may exceed or be outside the scope of our existing or future insurance policy coverage or limits. Any judgment against us that is more than our policy limits or not covered by our policies would have to be paid from our cash reserves, which would reduce our capital resources.

The occurrence of food-borne illnesses or other food safety incidents could also adversely affect the price and availability of affected ingredients and raw materials, resulting in higher costs, disruptions in supply and a reduction in our sales. For example, some of our co-packing manufacturing is done in facilities in the presence of multiple allergens, requiring additional efforts for us to confirm that there are no allergens contained in our products produced in such facilities. Additional testing to confirm the presence of allergens increases our costs, as well as the risks to our reputation and brand should we inadvertently fail to detect any allergens. Furthermore, any instances of food contamination or regulatory noncompliance, whether or not caused by our actions, could compel us, our suppliers, our co-manufacturers, our distributors or our customers, depending on the circumstances, to conduct a recall in accordance with United States Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”)

 

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regulations and comparable state laws and applicable EU and EU member state laws and regulations, as well as other regulations and laws in the other jurisdictions in which we operate. Food recalls could result in significant losses due to their associated costs, the destruction of product inventory, lost sales due to the unavailability of the product for a period of time and potential loss of existing distributors or customers and a potential negative impact on our ability to attract new customers and maintain our current customer base due to negative consumer experiences or because of an adverse impact on our brand and reputation. We are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of allergen contaminations because a sizable amount of our target customer base is sensitive to certain food products, such as dairy and soy, and they purchase our products in order to avoid such allergens. The costs of a recall could exceed or be outside the scope of our existing or future insurance policy coverage or limits.

In addition, food companies have been subject to targeted, large-scale tampering as well as to opportunistic, individual product tampering, and we, like any food company, could be a target for product tampering. Forms of tampering could include the introduction of foreign material, chemical contaminants and pathological organisms into consumer products as well as product substitution. The FDA enforces laws and regulations, such as the Food Safety Modernization Act, that require companies like us to analyze, prepare and implement mitigation strategies specifically to address tampering designed to inflict widespread public health harm. In the European Union, our operations are also subject to a number of EU and EU member state regulations, in particular Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority (“EFSA”) and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. The regulation sets forth essential requirements such as food safety and traceability requirements and a food operator’s responsibilities. Food business operators must at all stages of production, processing and distribution within the businesses under their control ensure that foods satisfy the requirements of food law, in particular as to food safety. If we do not adequately address the possibility, or any actual instance, of product tampering, we could face possible seizure or recall of our products and the imposition of civil or criminal sanctions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the European Union, Regulation (EU) No 2017/625 of March 15, 2017 provides the general framework for official controls and other official activities, either at EU or member state level, to ensure the application of food law including with respect to food safety.

We may not be able to compete successfully in our highly competitive market.

We operate in a highly competitive market. Numerous brands and products compete for limited retail, coffee shop, foodservice and restaurant customers and consumers. In our market, competition is based on, among other things, brand equity and consumer relationships, consumer trends, product experience (including taste, functionality and texture), nutritional profile and dietary attributes, sustainability of our supply chain (including raw material), quality and type of ingredients, distribution and product availability, pricing pressure and competitiveness and product packaging.

We compete with conventional dairy companies, including Lactalis, Fonterra, Arla Foods and Dean Foods, many of whom may have substantially greater financial and other resources than us and whose dairy products are well accepted in the marketplace today. They may also have lower operational costs and higher gross margins, and as a result, may be able to offer conventional dairy products to customers at lower costs than plant-based products. This could cause us to lower our prices in order to compete, resulting in lower profitability or, in the alternative, cause us to lose market share if we fail to lower prices.

We also compete with other food brands that develop and sell plant-based products, such as almond, soy, cashew and hemp, among others, including Blue Diamond Growers, Califia Farms, Ripple Foods and Ecotone and potential new competitors entering our category, depending on the region, and with companies that may be more innovative, have more resources and be able to bring new products to market faster or at a lower cost and to more quickly exploit and serve niche markets. Given our focus on international expansion, competitors who are only present in certain markets may be able to move more quickly than we do. Additionally, we may face new competition from emerging non-animal based dairy products or other non-dairy crop-based products that could compete effectively with our products.

 

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We compete with these competitors for retail customers (including grocery stores and supermarkets), foodservice customers (including coffee shops, cafes, restaurants and fast food) and e-commerce (both direct-to-consumer and through third-party platforms) customers. Consumers tend to focus on price as one of the key drivers behind their purchase of food and beverages, and consumers will only pay a premium price for a product that they believe is of premium quality and value. In order for us to not only maintain our market position, but also to continue to grow and acquire more consumers, some of which may be switching from traditional dairy to plant-based alternatives, we must continue to provide delicious, high-quality products, and consumers must believe in our vision for a food system that is better for people and the planet.

Conventional food companies, which are generally multinational corporations with substantially greater resources and operations than us, may acquire our competitors or launch their own plant-based products, and they may be able to use their resources and scale to respond to competitive pressures and changes in consumer preferences by introducing new products, reducing prices or increasing promotional activities, among other things. Retailers also market competitive products under their own private labels, which are generally sold at lower prices and compete with some of our products. Similarly, retailers could change the merchandising of our products, and we may be unable to retain the placement of our products in dairy cases to effectively compete with traditional dairy products. Competitive pressures or other factors could cause us to lose market share, which may require us to lower prices, increase marketing and advertising expenditures, or increase the use of discounting or promotional campaigns, each of which could adversely affect our margins and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Business—Competition” for more information.

Sales of our oatmilk varieties contribute a significant portion of our revenue. A reduction in sales of our oatmilk varieties would have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

Our oatmilk accounted for approximately 90% and 86% of our revenue in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our oatmilk has been the focal point of our development and marketing efforts, as part of our strategy when entering new markets is to introduce our Barista Edition variety of oatmilk before we expand our product offerings and sales channels. As a result, we prioritize the production of our oatmilk over our other products, which could hinder our ability to provide new products in a timely manner or at all, which could adversely affect our reputation, brand and business. We believe that sales of our oatmilk will continue to constitute a significant portion of our revenue, income and cash flow for the foreseeable future. Additionally, our oatmilk varieties have different pricing structures that vary by distribution channel and end market, which subjects us to the risk of overly relying upon a single large customer or a particular market. We cannot be certain that we will be able to continue to expand production and distribution of our oatmilk or that customer demand for our other existing and future products will expand to allow such products to represent a larger percentage of our revenue than they do currently. Accordingly, any factor adversely affecting sales of our oatmilk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to effectively expand our processing, manufacturing and production capacity as we continue to grow and scale our business, our business, results of operations and our brand reputation could be harmed.

Despite ongoing efforts to increase our production capacity, our current supply, processing and manufacturing capabilities are insufficient to meet our present business needs, and we expect to need to expand these capabilities even further as we continue to grow and scale our business. There is risk in our ability to effectively scale production and processing and effectively manage our supply chain requirements. We must accurately forecast long-term demand for our products in order to ensure we have adequate available processing and manufacturing capacity. Our forecasts are based on multiple assumptions that may cause our estimates to be inaccurate and affect our ability to obtain adequate processing and manufacturing capacities (whether our own processing and manufacturing capacities or co-processing and co-manufacturing capacities) in order to meet the demand for our products, which could prevent us from meeting increased customer demand. Additionally, as we expand our product portfolio, we must develop additional production solutions for new products, including

 

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expanding our use of raw ingredients beyond oats, such as pea protein, potato starch and others, which may be difficult to integrate into our current production processes and could cause delays. If we are unable to fulfill orders in a timely manner or at all, our reputation, brand and business could be harmed, as such failure could result in a loss of distribution channels, a delay in customer acquisition plans, limited innovation launches and loss of competitive opportunities. If we fail to meet demand for our products and, as a result, consumers who have previously purchased our products buy other brands or our retailers allocate shelf space to other brands, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our plans for addressing our rapid growth include expanding operations at our Landskrona, Vlissingen and constructing or in the planning stages to build additional facilities, such as our new facilities in Singapore, Maanshan, China and Peterborough, the United Kingdom. To facilitate this expansion and increase in production, we may be unable to hire and retain skilled employees, obtain the necessary raw materials or process oats or finished goods sufficiently, which could severely hamper our expansion plans, product development and manufacturing efforts.

We are also subject to the risk that as we continue to expand, our trade secrets, confidential information and the know-how related to our oat base and other proprietary products could be leaked, intentionally or unintentionally, misappropriated or stolen, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. As we continue to expand our production facilities around the world, we may need to put in place further legal, technological and other measures to ensure that our trade secrets, confidential information and know-how are adequately protected, which could result in increased costs.

On the other hand, if we overestimate our demand and overbuild our capacity, we may have significantly underutilized assets and may experience reduced margins. If we do not accurately align our processing and manufacturing capabilities with demand, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Failure by our logistics providers to deliver our products on time, or at all, could result in lost sales.

We currently rely upon third-party logistics providers for the distribution of our products. Our utilization of third parties for distribution and transportation handling is subject to risks, including increases in fuel prices, which would increase our shipping costs, and labor matters (including illness or absenteeism in workforce), inclement weather or other disruptions, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, any of which may impact the ability of these providers to provide distribution services that adequately meet our needs. For example, we currently import all of our products into China and the United Kingdom while we build new production facilities in these countries. If any of our third-party logistics providers were to fail to distribute our products to our customers in these regions, this could have a material adverse effect on our relationship with our customers in China and the United Kingdom, which could harm our brand and reputation, and as a result, would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. If we were to change distribution companies, we could face logistical difficulties that could adversely affect deliveries and could incur costs and expend resources in connection with such change. Moreover, we may not be able to obtain terms as favorable as those we receive from the third-party logistics providers that we currently use, which in turn would increase our costs and thereby may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not successfully ramp up operations at any of our new facilities, or these facilities may not operate in accordance with our expectations.

We recently commenced manufacturing operations in new facilities, and we expect to open more facilities in the future to further increase our production capacity. Any substantial delay in bringing any of our new facilities up to full production on the projected schedule would put pressure on the rest of our business operations to meet demand and production schedules and may hinder our ability to produce all of the product needed to meet orders and/or achieve our expected financial performance. Opening new facilities has required, and will

 

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continue to require, additional capital expenditures and the efforts and attention of our management and other personnel, which has and will continue to divert resources from our existing business or operations. Even if our new facilities are brought up to full production according to our projected schedule, they may not provide us with all of the operational and financial benefits we expect to receive.

Our facilities and the manufacturing equipment we use to produce our products is costly to replace or repair and may require substantial lead-time to do so. Suppliers that provide spare parts and external service engineers for maintenance, repairs and calibration face risks of disruption or disturbance to their businesses due to COVID-19, which may lead to disruption in our production. In addition, our ability to procure new processing and packaging equipment may face more lengthy lead times than is typical. We may also not be able to find suitable alternatives with co-manufacturers to replace the output from such equipment on a timely basis and at a reasonable cost. If we are not able to successfully ramp up operations at any of our new facilities and increase production, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

If we fail to develop and maintain our brand, our business could suffer.

We have developed a strong and trusted brand that has contributed significantly to the success of our business, and we believe our continued success depends on our ability to maintain and grow the value of the Oatly brand. Maintaining, promoting and positioning our brand and reputation will depend on, among other factors, the success of our plant-based product offerings, food safety, quality assurance, marketing and merchandising efforts and our ability to provide a consistent, high-quality customer experience. Any negative publicity, regardless of its accuracy, could materially adversely affect our business. The growing use of social and digital media by us, our consumers and third parties increases the speed and extent that information or misinformation and opinions can be shared. Negative publicity about us, our brand or our products on social or digital media could seriously damage our brand and reputation. For example, consumer perception could be influenced by negative media attention regarding our management team, ownership structure and our products or brand, such as any advertising or media campaigns that challenge the nutritional content or sustainability of our products or our marketing efforts regarding the quality of our products, and any negative publicity regarding the plant-based food industry as a whole could have an adverse effect on our business, brand and reputation.

We have also historically engaged in provocative and unconventional marketing and advertising campaigns as part of our marketing strategy to enhance and maintain our brand, which may expose us to lawsuits and heightened scrutiny from regulators in the markets in which we operate, as well as interest groups, such as dairy lobbyists. For example, in 2014, the Swedish dairy lobby, then Svensk Mjölk ek. för., sued us for an advertising campaign that the courts found was misleading and disparaging of dairy products. The decision resulted in a ban on our further use of a number of expressions marketing our products in Sweden, under the penalty of liquidated damages of SEK 2 million per expression. More generally, cultures around the world have historically viewed dairy products and farmers as a fundamental part of the food system, and as a result, the plant-based industry’s challenges, and particularly our challenges, to this perception could result in protective measures being taken against any competitors against dairy. There can be no assurance that the provocative tone of our marketing campaigns will not provoke actions by dairy proponents and others that are against the plant-based movement, such as the damaging of our products or facilities. As we continue to challenge consumer perceptions around dairy and other animal products compared to our plant-based alternatives, we currently face, and expect to continue to face, opposition from such interest groups, which could, if their efforts are successful, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We also rely heavily on our creative team to develop and maintain our brand. We have invested significant time and resources into creating a unique voice that speaks to consumers in a way that we believe no other competitor has been able to achieve, such as custom artwork that would be difficult to replicate, and this voice is and continues to be a crucial part of our growth strategy. If we were to lose any key individual on our creative team, it may be difficult and time consuming to replace such employee, and any new hire may not be as effective, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Our brand is very important to our vision and growth strategies, particularly our focus on being a “good company” and promoting sustainability both as a company and across the foodservice industry. We will need to continue to maintain and enhance our brand and adjust our offerings to appeal to a broader audience in the future in order to sustain our growth, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so. If we do not maintain the favorable perception of our brand, our sales and profits could be negatively impacted. Brand value is based on perceptions of subjective qualities, and any incident that erodes the loyalty of our customers, suppliers or co-manufacturers, including adverse publicity or a governmental investigation or litigation, could significantly reduce the value of our brand and significantly damage our business, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and we expect will continue to have, certain negative impacts on our business, these impacts may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The global spread and unprecedented impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic continues to create significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption. The pandemic has led governments and other authorities around the world to implement significant measures intended to control the spread of the virus, including shelter-in-place orders, social distancing measures, business closures or restrictions on operations, quarantines, travel bans and restrictions and multi-step policies with the goal of re-opening these markets. While some of these restrictions have been lifted or eased in many jurisdictions as the rates of COVID-19 infections have decreased or stabilized, a resurgence of the pandemic in some markets has slowed, halted or reversed the reopening process altogether. Most recently, as the number of COVID cases has dramatically spiked in parts of the European Union, some jurisdictions have reinstated restrictive measures, including, among other things, restaurant and bar closures or prohibitions on indoor dining, shelter-in-place orders and limitations on social gatherings. If COVID-19 infection rates resurge and the pandemic intensifies and expands geographically, its negative impacts on our business, particularly on our revenue from coffee shops and restaurants, our operating expenses, gross profit and gross margin, and our sales could be more prolonged and may become more severe. Even if not required by governments and other authorities, companies are also taking precautions, such as requiring employees to work remotely, imposing travel restrictions, reducing operating hours, imposing operating restrictions and temporarily closing businesses. These continuing restrictions and future prevention, mitigation measures and reopening policies imposed by governments and companies are likely to continue to have an adverse impact on global economic conditions and consumer confidence and spending (including lower discretionary income due to unemployment or reduced or limited work opportunities as a result of the measures taken in response to the pandemic), which has had, and is expected to continue to have, a material adverse impact on our customers and the demand for our products. Furthermore, sustained market-wide turmoil and business disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted, and are expected to continue to negatively impact, our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Many of our markets have temporarily closed bars and restaurants or limited or prohibited indoor dining, and limited the operations of many of our coffee shop and restaurant customers. Although certain of these restrictions have begun to be lifted and certain exceptions to these restrictions have allowed for takeaway and delivery, which have enabled certain of our customers to continue to generate business, we experienced a deterioration in sales to coffee shops and restaurant customers during the second and third quarters of 2020 as stay-at-home orders became and remained more widespread. While we also experienced an increase in retail demand beginning in the second quarter of 2020 compared to the second quarter of 2019 as consumers shifted toward more at-home consumption, the increase in sales from these channels may not fully offset the decline in revenue from our foodservice customers. Even after these restrictions are lifted, demand from our coffee shop and restaurant customers may continue to be negatively impacted due to continuing consumer concerns regarding the risk of COVID-19 transmission, decreased consumer confidence and spending and changes in consumer habits, among other things. Additionally, such restrictions have been and may continue to be re-implemented as transmission rates of the COVID-19 virus have increased in numerous jurisdictions, particularly in the European Union. The environment remains highly uncertain, and it is unclear how long it will take for consumer

 

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demand to return to pre-pandemic levels, if at all. It is also unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic may affect our industry in the long term, such as any changes to how our products fit into any potential fundamental changes to the lifestyle of our consumers and customers, whether the increase in retail demand will continue, or any potential consolidation within our industry that could affect the foodservice industry and/or our distribution channels as a result of the financial strain resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect revenue from our foodservice customers will continue to be significantly negatively impacted in 2021. It is, however, difficult to predict retail demand levels going forward, and if the COVID-19 pandemic continues, it could impact our future sales developments and planning. The pandemic has also negatively impacted our rate of research and innovation, as we have experienced delays in tests and launches of our new products. Less in-person shopping, fewer trials and in-person events may affect future product launches and may impact our portfolio pipeline over time.

We could also suffer product inventory losses or markdowns and lost revenue in the event of the loss or a shutdown of a major supplier, co-manufacturer or distributor or disruption of our distribution network. We source ingredients from several suppliers around the world. The impact of COVID-19 on any of our suppliers, co-manufacturers, distributors or transportation or logistics providers, including problems with their respective businesses, finances, labor matters (including illness or absenteeism in workforce), ability to import raw materials, product quality issues, costs, production, insurance and reputation, may negatively affect the price and availability of our ingredients and/or packaging materials and impact our supply chain. If the disruptions caused by COVID-19 continue for an extended period of time or there are one or more resurgences of COVID-19 or the emergence of another pandemic, our ability to meet the demand for our products may be materially impacted.

Additionally, we operate production facilities in Landskrona, Sweden, Millville, New Jersey, Vlissingen, the Netherlands and Ogden, Utah and currently have facilities under construction or in the planning stages in Singapore, Maanshan, China and Peterborough, the United Kingdom. We have implemented and continue to practice a series of physical distancing and safety practices at these facilities, which may result in increases in long-term operation costs. If we are forced to make further modifications or scale back hours of production in response to the pandemic, we expect our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. Further, because we sell all products that our production facilities currently produce, if we were forced to close any of our facilities as a result of the pandemic or any new government regulations imposed in any of the countries in which our facilities operate, this would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Part of our growth strategy includes increasing the number of international customers and expanding into additional geographies. The timing and success of our international expansion with respect to customers, co-manufacturers and/or production facilities has been and may continue to be negatively impacted by COVID-19, which could impede our anticipated growth.

We have also transitioned a significant subset of our office-based employee population to a remote work environment in an effort to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, which may exacerbate certain risks to our business, including cybersecurity attacks and risk of phishing due to an increase in the number of points of potential attack, such as laptops and mobile devices (both of which are now being used in increased numbers). In the event that an employee tests positive for COVID-19, we may have to temporarily close one or more of our facilities for cleaning and/or quarantine one or more employees, which could cause production delays and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has created significant disruptions in the credit and financial markets, which could adversely affect our ability to access capital on favorable terms or at all. The extent of COVID-19’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the pandemic (including any resurgences), all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving situation across the globe. Furthermore, the uncertainty created by COVID-19 significantly increases the difficulty in forecasting operating results and of strategic planning. As a result, it is not currently possible to ascertain the overall impact of COVID-19 on our business.

 

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However, the pandemic has had, and may continue to have, a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The impact of COVID-19 may also heighten other risks discussed in this “Risk Factors” section.

Failure to introduce new products or successfully improve existing products may adversely affect our ability to continue to grow.

A key element of our growth strategy depends on our ability to develop and market new products and improvements to our existing products that meet our standards for quality and appeal to consumer preferences. The success of our innovation and product development efforts is affected by our ability to anticipate changes in consumer preferences, the technical capability of our innovation staff in developing and testing product prototypes, including complying with applicable governmental regulations, the ability to obtain patents and other intellectual property rights and protections for commercializing such innovations and developments, the ability of our supply chain and production systems to provide adequate solutions and capacity for new products, and the success of our management and sales and marketing teams in introducing and marketing new products. Our innovation staff are continuously testing alternative formulations, ingredients and process technologies to those we currently use in our products, as they seek to find additional options to our current ingredients that are more easily sourced or will help to improve our carbon footprint, and which retain and build upon the quality and appeal of our current product offerings. Given the complex nature of our products, our development of any new products requires extensive research and development and may take longer to develop than comparable dairy products or less complex plant-based alternatives. Failure to develop and market new products that appeal to consumers may lead to a decrease in our growth, sales and profitability.

Additionally, the development and introduction of new products requires substantial research, development and marketing expenditures, which we may be unable to recoup if the new products do not gain widespread market acceptance. Further, the development of new products is constrained by our production capacity and is subject to our research and development team’s technical developments in plant-based food science. Our competitors also may obtain patents or other similar protected formulas that may hinder our ability to develop new products or enter new categories, which could have a material adverse effect on our growth. Production capacity constraints, which are a consequence of our rapid growth, of our Barista Edition oatmilk significantly affects, and may continue to affect, our ability to develop and launch new products and enter new product categories due to the unavailability of factory space to test and ensure the quality of new products. If we cannot build enough capacity and production facilities to enable us to expand our product portfolio, we will not be able to execute on our growth strategy. Further, if we fail to ensure the efficiency and quality of new production processes and products before they launch, we may experience uneven product quality, which could negatively impact consumer acceptance of new products and negatively impact our sales and brand reputation. If we are unsuccessful in meeting our objectives with respect to new or improved products, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Consumer preferences for our products are difficult to predict and may change, and, if we are unable to respond quickly to new trends, our business may be adversely affected.

Our business is focused on the development, manufacturing, marketing and distribution of branded plant-based, and more specifically, oat-based, products as alternatives to dairy products. Consumer demand could change based on a number of possible factors, including dietary habits and nutritional values, concerns regarding the health effects of ingredients, shifts in preference for various product attributes, consumer confidence in plant-based products and perceived value for our products relative to alternatives. Consumer trends that we believe favor sales of our products could change based on a number of possible factors, including a shift in preference from plant-based to animal-based dairy products, economic factors and social trends. While we continually strive to improve our products through thoughtful, innovative research and development approaches to meet consumer

 

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demands, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful. If consumer demand for our products decreased, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

In addition, sales of plant-based or dairy-alternative products are subject to evolving consumer preferences that we may not be able to accurately predict or respond to, and we may not be successful in identifying trends in consumer preferences and developing products that respond to such trends in a timely manner. A significant shift in consumer demand away from our products could reduce our sales or our market share and the prestige of our brand, which would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to manage our future growth effectively, our business could be materially adversely affected.

We have grown rapidly since inception and anticipate further growth. For example, our revenue increased from $117.9 million at December 31, 2018 to $204.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $421.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Our full-time employee count at December 31, 2020 (excluding contract employees) has almost tripled since December 31, 2018. This growth has placed significant demands on our management, financial, operational, technological and other resources. The anticipated growth and expansion of our business and our product offerings will place significant demands on our management and operations teams and require significant additional resources, including hiring a significant number of employees with no institutional knowledge, to meet our needs, which may not be available in a cost-effective manner, or at all. Further, we may be subject to reputational risks should our rapid growth jeopardize our relationships with our customers, distributors, co-packers or suppliers. If we fail to meet increased consumer demand as a result of our growth, our competitors may be able to meet such demand with their own products, which would diminish our growth opportunities. If we do not effectively manage our growth, we may not be able to execute on our business plan, respond to competitive pressures, take advantage of market opportunities, satisfy customer requirements or maintain high-quality product offerings, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on information technology systems and any inadequacy, failure, interruption or security breaches of those systems may harm our reputation and ability to effectively operate our business.

We are dependent on various information technology systems, including, but not limited to, cloud services, networks, applications and other outsourced services in connection with the operation of our business. A failure of our information technology systems to perform as we anticipate could disrupt our business and result in transaction errors, processing inefficiencies and loss of production or sales, causing our business and reputation to suffer. Our information technology systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from circumstances beyond our control, including fire, natural disasters, systems failures, computer viruses, external and internal security breaches or other security incidents and external factors, such as trade wars or political tensions that could make it more difficult for us to access information stored in other countries. Our third-party information technology providers are also subject to these risks, which could impact our ability to access these systems and any data outside of our physical control. We may also be impacted by market consolidation in the information technology and cloud services market, as we are applying a new cloud digital strategy in order to improve our agility, scalability and flexibility. Further, as we continue to grow, we may be unable to efficiently adapt and expand our information technology systems to meet future growth needs. Any such damage, incident, interruption or inadequacy of our information technology systems could damage our reputation and credibility, result in violations of data privacy laws and regulations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A cybersecurity incident or other technology disruptions could negatively impact our business and our relationships with customers.

We use computers in substantially all aspects of our business operations. We also use mobile devices and other online activities to connect with our employees, suppliers, co-manufacturers, distributors, customers and

 

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consumers. We extensively use social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter and may use other social media platforms in the future for online collaboration and consumer interaction. Such uses give rise to cybersecurity risks, including security breaches, espionage, system disruption, theft and inadvertent release of information. For example, we have noticed a significant increase in the number of cybersecurity attacks as a result of the remote working environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and any successful attacks could lead to reputational and financial harm to our business, damage our relationships with our customers and subject us to regulatory scrutiny that could lead to fines and penalties.

Our business involves the storage and transmission of numerous classes of sensitive and/or confidential information and intellectual property, including customers’ and suppliers’ information, private information about employees and financial and strategic information about us and our business partners. Further, as we pursue new initiatives that improve our operations and cost structure, we will also be expanding and improving our information technologies, resulting in a larger technological presence and corresponding exposure to cybersecurity risk. As we increase and improve our technology footprint, our information technology systems will become increasingly more complex and become more difficult to monitor. If we fail to assess and identify cybersecurity risks associated with new initiatives, we may become increasingly vulnerable to such risks. Additionally, while we have implemented measures to prevent security breaches and cyber incidents, our preventative measures and incident response efforts may not be entirely effective and could result in violations of data privacy laws and regulations and subject us to significant fines and harm our reputation. For example, in order to more quickly scale a regional office, we may provide basic information technology systems to cover the short-term growth of that particular office, but this could be overlooked as we continue to rapidly grow and scale our business and more sophisticated information systems may not be implemented for a significant time thereafter, which could subject such office to the heightened risk of cybersecurity and other attacks. The theft, destruction, loss, misappropriation, or release of sensitive and/or confidential information or intellectual property, or interference with our information technology systems or the technology systems of third parties on which we rely, could result in business disruption, negative publicity, brand damage, damage to reputation and credibility, violation of privacy laws and regulations, loss of customers, potential liability and competitive disadvantage, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our customers generally are not obligated to continue purchasing products from us.

Many of our customers are individuals that buy from us under purchase orders, and we generally do not have long-term agreements with or commitments from these customers for the purchase of products. We cannot provide assurance that our customers will maintain or increase their sales volumes or orders for the products supplied by us or that we will be able to maintain or add to our existing customer base. Decreases in our customers’ sales volumes or product orders may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Consolidation of customers or the loss of a significant customer could negatively impact our sales and profitability.

Supermarkets, grocers and other retailers in North America, the European Union and Asia continue to consolidate. This consolidation has produced larger, more sophisticated organizations with increased negotiating and buying power that are able to resist price increases, as well as operate with lower inventories, decrease the number of brands that they carry and increase their emphasis on private label products, all of which could negatively impact our business. The consolidation of retail customers also increases the risk that a significant adverse impact on their business could have a corresponding material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, in the year ended December 31, 2019, ICA, a Nordic grocery chain, accounted for approximately 10% of our revenue. In the year ended December 31, 2020, no customer accounted for 10% or

 

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more of our revenue. The loss of any large customer, the reduction of purchasing levels or prices paid for our products or the cancellation of any business from a large customer for an extended length of time could negatively impact our sales and profitability, as well as expose us to credit risks.

Furthermore, as retailers consolidate, they may reduce the number of branded products they offer in order to accommodate private label products and generate more competitive terms from branded suppliers. Consequently, our financial results may fluctuate significantly from period to period based on the actions of one or more significant retailers. A retailer may take actions that affect us for reasons that we cannot always anticipate or control, such as their financial condition, changes in their business strategy or operations, the introduction of competing products or the perceived quality of our products. Despite operating in different channels, our retailers sometimes compete for the same consumers. Because of actual or perceived conflicts resulting from this competition, retailers may take actions that negatively affect us. Any of the foregoing risks as a result of consolidation of our retailer customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to cost-effectively acquire new customers and consumers or retain our existing customers and consumers, or if we fail to derive revenue from our existing customers consistent with our historical performance, our business could be materially adversely affected.

Our success, and our ability to increase revenue and operate profitably, depends in part on our ability to cost-effectively acquire new customers and consumers and to retain and keep existing customers and consumers engaged so that they continue to purchase products from us. Our efforts to acquire and retain customers and consumers include increasing product supply, increasing our household penetration, expanding the number of products sold through existing retail customers, growing within the coffee shop and foodservice channels and strengthening our product offerings through innovation in both new and existing categories. Any strategies we employ to pursue this growth are subject to numerous factors outside of our control. For example, retailers continue to aggressively market their private label products, which could reduce consumer demand for our products. As we continue to focus on increasing our supply to meet the increase in consumer and customer demand, we are also subject to risks in the disruption of our supply chain, as any delays or interruptions in our supply chain that resulted in our inability to deliver products in a timely manner or at all could have a material adverse effect on our customer relationships, brand, reputation and business. If we fail to deliver our products to our customers in a timely manner or fail to meet other similar performance obligations, they may be able to charge us additional fees, impose penalties, delist us from their list of approved suppliers or other negative consequences, which would harm our ability to work with any such customers in the future and could have a material adverse effect on our brand and reputation. The expansion of our business also depends on our ability to increase consumer awareness of dairy alternatives and expand our distribution channels in new and existing markets, such as new foodservice and retail locations. Additionally, we may need to increase or reallocate spending on marketing and promotional activities, such as rebates, temporary price reductions, retailer advertisements, product coupons and other trade activities, and these expenditures are subject to risks, including related to consumer acceptance of our efforts. If we are unable to cost-effectively acquire new customers and consumers, retain and keep existing customers and consumers engaged, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. Further, if customers do not perceive our product offerings to be of sufficient value and quality, or if we fail to offer new and relevant product offerings, we may not be able to attract or retain customers and consumers or engage existing customers and consumers so that they continue to purchase products from us. We may lose loyal customers and consumers to our competitors if we are unable to meet customers’ orders in a timely manner, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may face difficulties as we expand our operations into countries in which we have no prior operating experience.

We intend to continue to expand our global footprint in order to enter into new markets. While we currently enter new markets in ways that allow us to maintain control over building the distribution and launching of our

 

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brand, as we continue to expand our global footprint, this may involve expanding into countries beyond those in which we currently operate and may involve expanding into less developed countries, which may have less political, social or economic stability and less developed infrastructure and legal systems. In addition, it may be difficult for us to understand and accurately predict taste preferences and purchasing habits of consumers in these new geographic markets. Further, our current go to market strategies may not be the optimal approach in certain markets due to these factors, which may require us to consider, develop and implement alternative entry and marketing strategies that we have not used before, and this could be more costly to implement or use additional resources that our other strategies do not require, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. It is costly to establish, develop and maintain international operations and develop and promote our brand in international markets. Additionally, as we expand into new countries, we may rely on local partners and distributors who may not fully understand our business or our vision. As we expand our business into new countries, we may encounter regulatory, legal, personnel, technological, consumer preference variations, competitive and other difficulties that increase our expenses and/or delay our ability to become profitable in such countries, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The international nature of our business subjects us to additional risks.

We are subject to a number of risks related to doing business internationally, any of which could significantly harm our business. These risks include:

 

   

restrictions on the transfer of funds to and from foreign countries, including potentially negative tax consequences;

 

   

unfavorable changes in tariffs, quotas, trade barriers or other export or import restrictions, including navigating the changing relationships between countries such as the United States and China;

 

   

unfavorable foreign exchange controls and currency exchange rates;

 

   

increased exposure to general international market and economic conditions;

 

   

political and economic uncertainty and volatility;

 

   

the potential for substantial penalties and litigation related to violations of a wide variety of laws, treaties and regulations, including food and beverage regulations, anti-corruption regulations (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and the U.K. Bribery Act) and privacy laws and regulations (including the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation);

 

   

significant differences in regulations across international markets and the regulatory impacts on a globally integrated supply chain;

 

   

the difficulty and costs of designing and implementing an effective control environment across diverse regions and employee bases;

 

   

the difficulty and costs of maintaining effective data security;

 

   

global pricing pressures; and

 

   

unfavorable and/or changing foreign tax treaties and policies.

In addition, our financial performance on a U.S. dollar denominated basis is subject to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, as our principal exposure is to the Swedish Krona, Euro and Pound Sterling. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Ingredient and packaging costs are volatile and may rise significantly, which may negatively impact the profitability of our business.

In addition to purchasing oats and other raw materials, such as potato protein, we purchase and use significant quantities of cardboard, paper and other recycled materials to package our products. Costs of

 

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ingredients and packaging, particularly sustainable packaging materials, are volatile and can fluctuate due to conditions that are difficult to predict, including global competition for resources, weather conditions, consumer demand and changes in governmental trade and agricultural programs. Volatility in the prices of raw materials and other supplies we purchase could increase our cost of sales and reduce our profitability. Moreover, we may not be able to implement price increases for our products to cover any increased costs, and any price increases we do implement may result in lower sales volumes. If we are not successful in managing our ingredient and packaging costs or the higher costs of sustainable materials, if we are unable to increase our prices to cover increased costs or if such price increases reduce our sales volumes, then such increases in costs will adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our revenue growth rate may slow over time and may not be indicative of future performance.

Although we have grown rapidly over the last several years, our revenue growth rates may slow over time due to a number of reasons, including increasing competition, market saturation, slowing demand for our product offerings, increasing regulatory costs and challenges and failure to capitalize on growth opportunities.

Fluctuations in our results of operations may impact, and may have a disproportionate effect on, our overall financial condition and results of operations.

To date, we have not experienced any pronounced seasonality, but such fluctuations may have been masked by our rapid growth. Our business may be subject to seasonal or other fluctuations that may have a disproportionate effect on our results of operations. We occasionally offer sales discounts and promotions through various programs to customers and consumers, which may result in reduced margins. These programs include rebates, temporary on-shelf price reductions, retailer advertisements, product coupons and other trade activities. We anticipate that, at times, these promotional activities may also cause seasonal fluctuations that can adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Litigation or legal proceedings could expose us to significant liabilities and have a negative impact on our reputation or business.

From time to time, we may be party to various claims and litigation proceedings. We evaluate these claims and litigation proceedings to assess the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes and to estimate, if possible, the amount of potential losses. Based on these assessments and estimates, we may establish reserves, as appropriate. These assessments and estimates are based on the information available to management at the time and involve a significant amount of management judgment. Actual outcomes or losses may differ materially from our assessments and estimates. For example, we are and have been subject to various trademark lawsuits in the ordinary course of our business.

Even when not merited, the defense of these lawsuits may divert our management’s attention, and we may incur significant expenses in defending these lawsuits. The results of litigation and other legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and adverse judgments or settlements in some of these legal disputes may result in adverse monetary damages, penalties or injunctive relief against us, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, cash flows or results of operations. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could damage our reputation and potentially prevent us from selling or manufacturing our products, which would make it more difficult to compete effectively or to obtain adequate insurance in the future.

Furthermore, while we maintain insurance for certain potential liabilities, such insurance does not cover all types and amounts of potential liabilities and is subject to various exclusions as well as caps on amounts recoverable. Even if we believe a claim is covered by insurance, insurers may dispute our entitlement to recovery for a variety of potential reasons, which may affect the timing and, if the insurers prevail, the amount of our recovery.

 

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Legal claims, government investigations or other regulatory enforcement actions could subject us to civil and criminal penalties.

We operate in a highly regulated environment with constantly evolving legal and regulatory frameworks. Consequently, we are subject to heightened risk of legal claims, government investigations or other regulatory enforcement actions. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with existing laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, temporary workers, contractors or agents will not violate our policies and procedures. Moreover, a failure to maintain effective control processes could lead to violations, unintentional or otherwise, of laws and regulations. Legal claims, government investigations or regulatory enforcement actions arising out of our failure or alleged failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could subject us to civil and criminal penalties that could materially and adversely affect our product sales, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. Even if our defense against such claims is successful, our reputation could suffer as a result of any such claim or investigation. In addition, the costs and other effects of defending potential and pending litigation and administrative actions against us may be difficult to determine and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. For example, several of the reports rely on or employ projections of consumer adoption and incorporate data from secondary sources such as company websites as well as industry, trade and government publications. While our estimates of market size and expected growth of our market were made in good faith and are based on assumptions and estimates we believe to be reasonable, these estimates may not prove to be accurate. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecast in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow at the rate we anticipate, if at all.

Failure to retain our senior management or to attract, train and retain employees may adversely affect our operations or our ability to grow successfully.

Our success is substantially dependent on the continued service of certain members of our senior management, including Toni Petersson, our Chief Executive Officer. These executives have been primarily responsible for determining the strategic direction of our business and for executing our growth strategy and are integral to our brand, culture and the reputation we enjoy with suppliers, co-manufacturers, distributors, customers and consumers. The loss of the services of any of these executives and key management personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, as we may not be able to find suitable individuals to replace them on a timely basis, if at all. In addition, any such departure could be viewed in a negative light by investors and analysts, which may cause the price of our ADSs to decline. We do not currently carry key-person life insurance for our senior executives.

Our success also depends upon our ability to attract, train and retain a sufficient number of employees who understand and appreciate our culture and can represent our brand effectively and establish credibility with our business partners and consumers. If we are unable to hire and retain employees capable of meeting our business needs and expectations, our business and brand image may be impaired. Any failure to meet our staffing needs or any material increase in turnover rates of our employees may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we cannot maintain our company culture or focus on our mission as we grow, our success and our business and competitive position may be harmed.

We believe our culture and our mission have been key contributors to our success to date. Any failure to preserve our culture or focus on our mission could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel,

 

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which is critical to our growth, and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives. As we grow, and particularly as we develop the infrastructure of a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain these important values. If we fail to maintain our company culture or focus on our purpose, our business and competitive position when attracting employees may be harmed.

Our insurance may not provide adequate levels of coverage against claims or we may be unable to find insurance with sufficient coverage at a reasonable cost.

We believe that we maintain insurance customary for businesses of our size and type. However, there are types of losses we may incur that cannot be insured against or that we believe are not economically reasonable to insure. Moreover, if we do not make policy payments on a timely basis, we could lose our insurance coverage, or if a loss is incurred that exceeds policy limits, our insurance provider could refuse to cover our claims, which could result in increased costs. If we are unable to make claims on our insurance, then we may be liable for any such claims, which could cause us to incur significant liabilities. Although we believe that we have adequate coverage, if we lose our insurance coverage and are unable to find similar coverage elsewhere or if rates continue to increase, it may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Disruptions in the worldwide economy may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Adverse and uncertain economic conditions, including the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, may affect distributor, retailer, foodservice and consumer demand for our products. In addition, our ability to manage normal commercial relationships with our suppliers, co-manufacturers, distributors, retailers, foodservice consumers and creditors may suffer. Consumers may shift purchases to lower-priced or other perceived value offerings during economic downturns. In particular, consumers may reduce the amount of plant-based food products that they purchase where there are conventional animal-based offerings, which generally have lower retail prices. In addition, consumers may choose to purchase private label products rather than branded products because they are generally less expensive. Distributors and retailers may become more conservative in response to these conditions and seek to reduce their inventories. Our results of operations depend upon, among other things, our ability to maintain and increase sales volume with our existing distributors, retailer and foodservice customers, our ability to attract new customers and consumers, the financial condition of our customers and consumers and our ability to provide products that appeal to consumers at the right price. Prolonged unfavorable economic conditions may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to risks related to sustainability and corporate social responsibility.

Our business faces increasing scrutiny related to environmental, social and governance issues, including sustainable development, product packaging, renewable resources, environmental stewardship, supply chain management, climate change, diversity and inclusion, workplace conduct, human rights, philanthropy and support for local communities. If we fail to meet applicable standards or expectations with respect to these issues across all of our products and in all of our operations and activities, including the expectations we set for ourselves, our reputation and brand image could be damaged, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.

Further, we have developed a strong corporate reputation over the years for our focus on environmental and sustainability issues. We seek to conduct our business in an ethical and socially responsible way, through sustainable business practices and various programs committed to sustainability, human rights and compliance, which we regard as essential to maximizing stakeholder value, while enhancing community quality, environmental stewardship and furthering the plant-based movement around the world. Implementation of our environmental and sustainability initiatives, including our annual sustainability report, can require moderate financial expenditures and employee resources, and if we are unable to meet our sustainability, environmental and social and governance goals, this could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and brand and negatively impact our relationship with our employees, customers and consumers.

 

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If our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.

We review our goodwill and amortizable intangible assets for impairment annually or when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Changes in economic or operating conditions impacting our estimates and assumptions could result in the impairment of our goodwill or other assets. In the event that we determine our goodwill or other assets are impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings in our financial statements that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Regulation

Our operations are subject to European and international laws and regulations, and there is no assurance that we will be in compliance with all regulations.

Our operations are subject to extensive regulation by international laws and regulations, including requirements related to food safety, quality, manufacturing, the environment, trade compliance, processing, storage, marketing, advertising, labeling and distribution as well as those related to work health and workplace safety. Our activities are subject to extensive regulation in the United States and the European Union, as well as in all other markets in which we operate. In general, oats and oatmilk, as well as other plant-based alternatives, are a new type of food that lacks the well-established regulations comparable to other types of food, and as a result, it is difficult for us to predict what types of laws and regulations may come into effect that may influence our products, production, operations and business.

In the United States, we are subject to the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and regulations promulgated thereunder by the FDA. This comprehensive regulatory program governs, among other things, the manufacturing, composition and ingredients, packaging, testing, labeling, marketing, promotion, advertising, storage, distribution and safety of food. In the European Union, our operations are also subject to a number of EU and national (member state) regulations, in particular Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the EFSA and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. This regulation sets forth essential requirements such as food safety requirements and traceability requirements, a food operator’s responsibilities and general principles that must be complied with such as risk analysis and precautionary and transparency principles. In parallel, food products must also comply with numerous other EU regulations such as Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, including food labeling requirements, and Regulation (EU) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims.

The FDA requires that facilities that manufacture food products comply with a range of requirements, including hazard analysis and preventative controls regulations, current good manufacturing practices (“cGMPs”) and supplier verification requirements. Our processing facilities, including those of our co-manufacturers, are subject to periodic inspection by federal, state and local authorities. Although we maintain consistent contact with and review the operations of our co-manufacturers, we do not control the manufacturing processes of, but rely upon, our co-manufacturers for compliance with cGMPs for the manufacturing of our products that is conducted by our co-manufacturers. If we or our co-manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture products that conform to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, the European Commission or others, we or they may be subject to adverse inspectional findings or enforcement actions, which could materially impact our ability to market our products, could result in our co-manufacturers’ inability to continue manufacturing for us or could result in a recall of our product that has already been distributed. In addition, we rely upon our co-manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, the European Commission, the national competent authorities (of the different EU member states) or a comparable foreign regulatory authority determines that we or these co-manufacturers have not complied with the applicable regulatory requirements, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially impacted.

 

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In Europe, we are regulated by, among other authorities, the European Commission and the U.K.’s Food Standards Agency, Health and Safety Executive, Environment Agency, Environmental Health Officers and Trading Standards Officers and their equivalents in other European countries. We also are regulated by similar authorities in China, including China Inspection and Quarantine, Singapore, including the Singapore Food Agency and other regulatory bodies elsewhere in the world.

We seek to comply with applicable regulations through a combination of employing internal experience and expert personnel to ensure safety, health, environmental and quality assurance compliance (i.e., assuring that our products are not adulterated or misbranded) and contracting with third-party laboratories that conduct analyses of products to ensure compliance with nutrition labeling requirements and to identify any potential contaminants before distribution. Failure by us or our co-manufacturers to comply with applicable laws and regulations or maintain permits, licenses or registrations relating to our or our co-manufacturers’ operations could subject us to civil remedies or penalties, including fines, injunctions, recalls or seizures, warning letters, restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of products, or refusals to permit the import or export of products, as well as potential criminal sanctions, which could result in increased operating costs resulting in a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Business—Government Regulation.

For example, due to our currently limited production capabilities, we export many of our products from our production facilities in Europe and the United States to the other markets in which we operate, such as China. We face the risk that our products may face unexpected difficulties being exported out of their countries of production or being imported into the countries of sale, as either could result in delays in our customers receiving our products on a timely basis or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our relationships with our customers and our global reputation. If our products were to be prevented from being exported or imported for whatever reason, this could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are also subject to extensive regulations internationally where we manufacture, distribute, promote and/or sell our products. Our products are subject to numerous food safety and other laws and regulations relating to the sourcing, manufacturing, storing, labeling, marketing, advertising and distribution of these products. If regulatory authorities in the jurisdictions in which we manufacture, distribute, promote and/or sell our products determine that the labeling, promotion, advertising and/or composition of any of our products is not in compliance with applicable law or regulations, or if we or our co-manufacturers otherwise fail to comply with such applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to civil remedies or penalties, such as fines, injunctions, recalls or seizures, warning letters, restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the products, or refusals to permit the import or export of products, as well as potential criminal sanctions. In the European Union, applicable sanctions and penalties, which may include criminal sanctions, are set forth in EU member state laws and enforcement measures are determined by national competent authorities, thus adding more complexity from a compliance perspective. In addition, enforcement of existing laws and regulations, changes in legal requirements and/or evolving interpretations of existing regulatory requirements may result in increased compliance costs and create other obligations, financial or otherwise, that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, with our expanding international operations, we could be adversely affected by violations of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws, which generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to non-U.S. officials or other third parties for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. While our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, our internal control policies and procedures may not protect us from non-compliance or reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents. Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our business and result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Changes in existing laws or regulations, or the adoption of new laws or regulations may increase our costs and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The manufacture and marketing of food products is highly regulated. We, our suppliers and co-manufacturers are subject to a variety of laws and regulations internationally, which apply to many aspects of our business, including the sourcing of raw materials, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, distribution, advertising, sale, quality and safety of our products, as well as the health and safety of our employees and the protection of the environment.

In the United States, we are subject to regulation by various government agencies, including the FDA, Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as various state and local agencies. Outside the United States, we are subject to direct and indirect regulation by various international regulatory bodies, including the European Commission, EFSA, and the U.K.’s Food Standards Agency, Health and Safety Executive, Environment Agency, Environmental Health Officers and Trading Standards Officers and equivalent national competent authorities in EU member states. Following the end of the transition period on December 31, 2020, due to the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU, the United Kingdom’s food and feed safety policy is no longer regulated by EU law or subject to supervision by EFSA and the European Commission.

For example, the European Commission, EFSA, EU member state authorities, the FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, other state regulators in the United States and/or other similar international regulatory authorities could take action to further impact our ability to use or refer to the term “milk” or dairy terms to describe our products. In the European Union, Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 establishing a common organization of the markets in agricultural products provides specific requirements for some food products, including use of terms related to “milk” and “milk products.” Further to case law by the highest European Court (Case C-422/16), as part of ongoing revisions to the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy, lawmakers are considering a proposal, known as Amendment 171, which would prohibit plant-based products from using comparative language to dairy products, including using words such as “milk,” “cream” and other related terms to describe plant-based products. While use of the term “milk” and similar terms are already limited to products containing mammary secretion, if adopted, these regulations would further restrict the use thereof (e.g., by prohibiting any misuse, imitation or evocation of such terms, even if accompanied by an expression such as “style,” “substitute” or similar) and thus limit our ability to position our products as “dairy alternatives.”

In addition, a food may be deemed misbranded if its labeling is interpreted as false or misleading in any particular way, and regulators, including the European Commission, EFSA, EU Member state authorities, the FDA, and other state or international regulators, could interpret the use of the term “milk” or any similar phrase(s) to describe our plant-based products as false or misleading or likely to create an erroneous impression regarding their composition. In 2018, the FDA announced that it planned to reexamine its enforcement of the standard of identity for milk, the official definition of which involves “lacteal secretion,” which interpretation could result in the restriction of the use of the term “milk” to only those products that are animal-based, similar to the position taken by European regulators. Should regulatory authorities take action with respect to the use of the term “milk” or similar terms, such that we are unable to use those terms with respect to our plant-based products, we could be subject to enforcement action or could be required to recall of our products marketed using these terms, we may be required to modify our marketing strategy, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Such regulatory authorities could also object to any claims we may make about the potential health benefits or nutritional content associated with our products. In the European Union, nutritional or health claims related to food are specifically regulated by Regulation (EU) No 1924/2006, the objective of which is to ensure that any claim made on a food’s labeling, presentation or advertising in the European Union is clear, accurate and based on scientific evidence. Only health and nutrition claims that have been authorized by the European Commission (i.e., which are based on scientific evidence, evaluated by EFSA and can be easily understood by consumers), as

 

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listed in Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 and Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 as amended respectively, and a publicly accessible EU register on nutrition and health claims, can be used.

In addition, since December 2016, Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 requires that the vast majority of pre-packed foods bear a nutrition declaration, which must present, among other information, the energy value and the amounts of fat, saturates, carbohydrates, sugars, protein and salt of the food in a legible tabular format on the packaging. The regulatory and public focus on sugar content in food is increasing, and there are ongoing political debates on how to define, label and regulate dietary sugars. For example, the definition of added sugars (in the United States) and free sugars (in the United Kingdom) generally includes sugars transformed in the production process, which disproportionately impacts our products compared to traditional dairy and could have a negative adverse effect on the sale of our products in these markets as well as negatively impact our reputation. Any further such changes in the product labeling could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we are subject to certain standards, such as Global Food Safety Initiative standards, and review by voluntary organizations, such as the Council of Better Business Bureaus’ National Advertising Division. We could incur costs, including fines, penalties and third-party claims, because of any violations of or liabilities under such requirements, including any competitor or consumer challenges relating to compliance with such requirements. For example, in connection with the marketing and advertisement of our products, we could be the target of claims relating to false or deceptive advertising, including under the auspices of the FTC and the consumer protection statutes of some states in the United States.

The regulatory environment in which we operate could change significantly and adversely in the future. Since plant-based, processed foods are still a relatively new food category, our business is subject to significant and ongoing debates and discussions regarding the nutritional value of plant-based alternatives as compared to dairy products, dietary recommendations and the treatment of fortifications and additives, all of which significantly influence the regulatory environment in which we operate and adds further costs and complexity to our operations. Any change in manufacturing, labeling or packaging requirements for our products may lead to an increase in costs, restrictive policy measures, taxes, limitations on distribution, interruptions in production or affect public perception of our products, any of which could adversely affect our operations and financial condition. New or revised government laws and regulations could result in additional compliance costs and, in the event of non-compliance, civil remedies, including fines, injunctions, withdrawals, recalls or seizures and confiscations, as well as potential criminal sanctions, any of which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, recent federal, state and foreign attention to the naming of plant-based dairy alternative products could result in standards or requirements that mandate changes to our current labeling.

Failure by our suppliers of raw materials or co-manufacturers to comply with food safety, environmental or other laws and regulations, or with the specifications and requirements of our products, may disrupt our supply of products and adversely affect our business.

If our suppliers or co-manufacturers fail to comply with food safety, environmental or other laws and regulations, or face allegations of non-compliance, their operations may be disrupted. Additionally, our co-manufacturers are required to maintain the quality of our products and to comply with our product specifications. In the event of actual or alleged non-compliance, we might be forced to find an alternative supplier or co-manufacturer and we may be subject to lawsuits related to such non-compliance by our suppliers and co-manufacturers. As a result, our supply of raw materials or finished inventory could be disrupted or our costs could increase, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The failure of any co-manufacturer to produce products that conform to our standards could adversely affect our reputation in the marketplace and result in product recalls, product liability claims and economic loss. For example, other plant-based dairy alternative companies have been significantly impacted by recalls resulting from allergen contamination at the supplier level. Additionally, actions we may take to mitigate the impact of any

 

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disruption or potential disruption in our supply of raw materials or finished inventory, including increasing inventory in anticipation of a potential supply or production interruption, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to stringent environmental regulation and potentially subject to environmental litigation, proceedings and investigations.

Our business operations and ownership and past and present operation of real property are subject to stringent federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the discharge of materials into the environment and natural resources. For example, we are required to maintain waste water management systems at our production facilities, and should we want to expand any of our current production facilities, this would require regulatory approval in order to expand such systems at any particular site, and there can be no assurance that we will obtain any such regulatory approvals. While we undertake precautions to ensure that we comply with applicable environmental or health safety laws or regulations, there can be no assurance that we will not inadvertently release any cleaning chemicals, cooling agents or other types of materials, which could violate any applicable regulations. Violation of these laws and regulations could lead to substantial liabilities, fines and penalties or to capital expenditures related to pollution control equipment that could have a material adverse effect on our business. We could also experience in the future significant opposition from third parties with respect to our business, including environmental non-governmental organizations, neighborhood groups and municipalities. Additionally, new matters or sites may be identified in the future that will require additional environmental investigation, assessment, or expenditures, which could cause additional capital expenditures. Future discovery of contamination of property underlying or in the vicinity of our present properties or facilities and/or waste disposal sites could require us to incur additional expenses, delays to our business and to our proposed construction. The occurrence of any of these events, the implementation of new laws and regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws or regulations, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes to international trade policies, treaties and tariffs, including as a result of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, or the emergence of a trade war could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes to international trade policies, treaties and tariffs, or the perception that these changes could

occur, could adversely impact the financial and economic conditions of some or all of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Any trade tensions or trade wars, for example, between the United States and China, or changes in Europe or the European Union or news and rumors of a potential trade war, could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On December 31, 2020 the transition period following the United Kingdom’s departure from the European Union (“Brexit”) ended. On December 24, 2020, the United Kingdom and the European Union agreed a trade and cooperation agreement (the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement”), in relation to the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union which will enter into force on the first day of the month following that in which the United Kingdom and the European Union have notified each other that they have completed their respective internal requirements and procedures for establishing their consent to be bound. The Trade and Cooperation Agreement took full effect on February 28, 2021 and provided for, among other things, zero-rate tariffs and zero quotas on the movement of goods between the United Kingdom and the European Union.

Due to the size and importance of the economy of the United Kingdom, the uncertainty and unpredictability concerning the United Kingdom’s future laws and regulations (including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, immigration laws and employment laws) as well as its legal, political and economic relationships with Europe following its exit of the European Union may continue to be a source of instability in international markets, create significant currency fluctuations or otherwise adversely affect trading agreements or similar cross-border cooperation arrangements (whether economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory or otherwise) for

 

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the foreseeable future. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend on the implementation of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement and any future agreements (or lack thereof) between the United Kingdom and the European Union. Brexit could result in adverse economic effects across the United Kingdom and Europe, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

For example, we currently do not have production facilities in the United Kingdom, and as a result, we import all of our products into the United Kingdom. As a result, our business in the United Kingdom could be adversely affected by changes in trade agreements between the United Kingdom and the European Union. Additionally, the imposition of increased or new tariffs could increase our costs and require us to raise prices on certain of our products, which may adversely impact the demand for such products. If we are not successful in offsetting the impacts of any such tariffs, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We may not be able to protect our proprietary technology adequately, which may impact our commercial success.

Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technologies. We rely on a combination of trademarks, patent protection, trade secrets and copyrights, as well as confidentiality and other contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary technology. However, these legal means afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our proprietary technology or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. Despite our efforts to protect our products and developments, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our products or other technology, or obtain and use our trade secrets and other confidential information. Additionally, due to the highly competitive space in which we operate, competitors may file patent applications that, if granted, could hinder our ability to enter into new product categories and develop new products.

We cannot offer any assurances about which, if any, patents will issue from any of our patent applications, the breadth of any granted patents, or whether any granted patents will be found invalid and unenforceable or will be infringed or challenged by third parties. Any successful proceeding challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of these patents or any other patents owned by or, if applicable in the future, licensed to us could deprive us of rights necessary for the successful commercialization of products that we may develop. The term of any individual patent depends on applicable law in the country where the patent is granted. In the United States, provided all maintenance fees are timely paid, a patent generally has a term of 20 years from its application filing date or earliest claimed non-provisional filing date. Extensions may be available under certain circumstances, but the life of a patent and, correspondingly, the protection it affords is limited. Further, our ability to enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights depends on our ability to detect infringement, especially process patents. It may be difficult to detect infringers who do not advertise the process that are used in connection with their products. Moreover, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain evidence of infringement in a competitor’s or potential competitor’s products.

Since patent applications are confidential for a period of 18 months after a first priority filing, we cannot know, until these 18 months have lapsed, that we were the first to file on the technologies covered in one or several of our patent applications related to our technologies or products. Furthermore, at any time during the lifetime of a patent or patent application, claims on the right to the underlying invention may be raised, which could harm or otherwise hinder our possibility to exercise such invention. For example a derivation proceeding may be provoked by a third party, or instituted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) to determine who was the first to invent any of the subject matter covered by the patent claims of our patents or patent applications.

Further, assertions by third parties of infringement or other violation by us of their intellectual property rights could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Third parties may in the future

 

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assert, that we have infringed, misappropriated, or otherwise violated their copyrights, patents, trademarks, and other intellectual property rights (including with respect to any existing registrations held by such third parties), and as we face increasing competition, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. We could be targeted for litigation and we may not be able to assert counterclaims against parties that sue us for patent, or other intellectual property infringement. In addition, various “non-practicing entities” that own patents and other intellectual property rights may attempt to aggressively assert claims in order to extract value from us as a product company. Additionally, when we introduce new products, including in territories where we currently do not have an offering, our exposure to patent and other intellectual property claims from competitors and non-practicing entities will increase. It is difficult to predict whether assertions of third-party intellectual property rights or any infringement or misappropriation claims arising from such assertions will substantially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are forced to defend against any infringement or misappropriation claims, whether they are with or without merit, are settled out of court or are determined in our favor, we may be required to expend significant time and financial resources on the defense of such claims. Furthermore, an adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay significant damages, which may be even greater if we are found to have willfully infringed upon a party’s intellectual property. Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may result in significant expenses and reputational loss and could distract our management personnel and other employees from their normal responsibilities.

Patent law can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important principles remain unresolved. In the United States and in many international jurisdictions, policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in patents can be inconsistent and/or unclear. The U.S. Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit have made, and will likely continue to make, changes in how the patent laws of the United States are interpreted. Similarly, international courts and governments have made, and will continue to make, changes in how the patent laws in their respective countries are interpreted. In addition, the European patent system is relatively stringent in the type of amendments that are allowed during prosecution, and the complexity and uncertainty of European patent laws has also increased in recent years. We cannot predict future changes in the interpretation of patent laws by U.S. and international judicial bodies or changes to patent laws that might be enacted into law by U.S. and international legislative bodies.

Moreover, in the United States, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the “Leahy-Smith Act”) enacted in September 2011, brought significant changes to the U.S. patent system, including a change from a “first to invent” system to a “first to file” system. Other changes in the Leahy-Smith Act affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art and may affect patent litigation. The USPTO developed new regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act became effective on March 16, 2013. The Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property adequately, which may harm the value of our brand.

We believe that our intellectual property has substantial value and has contributed significantly to the success of our business. Our trademarks, including “Oatly” (in various forms), “Wow No Cow” and “Post-Milk Generation,” are valuable assets that reinforce our brand and consumers’ favorable perception of our products. We cannot assure you that we will be able to register and/or enforce our trademarks in all jurisdictions as the requirement for trademarks registrability and the scope of trademark protection in different jurisdictions can be inconsistent. In addition, third parties may adopt trade names or trademarks that are the same as or similar to ours, especially in a jurisdiction we have yet to cover, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. Over the long term, if we are unable to successfully register our trademarks and trade names and establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.

 

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We also rely on unpatented proprietary expertise, recipes and formulations and other trade secrets and copyright protection to develop and maintain our competitive position. Whether we choose to seek legal protection through patent registration or, alternatively, seek to maintain trade secrecy, involves a risk assessment that could result in a competitor gaining patent protection on something that we kept as a trade secret, which could result in the infringement of such competitor’s intellectual property after such intellectual property was made publicly available, which could negatively impact our ability to provide any products created by using such intellectual property and result in a loss of sales.

Our confidentiality agreements with our employees and certain of our consultants, contract employees, suppliers and independent contractors, including some of our co-manufacturers who use our formulations to manufacture our products, generally require that all information made known to them be kept strictly confidential. Nevertheless, trade secrets are difficult to protect. Although we attempt to protect our trade secrets, our confidentiality agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our proprietary information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of such information. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets, in which case we would not be able to assert trade secret rights against such parties. Further, some of our formulations have been developed by or with our suppliers and co-manufacturers. As a result, we may not be able to prevent others from using similar formulations.

We cannot assure you that the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property rights are adequate, that our intellectual property rights can be successfully defended and asserted in the future or that third parties will not infringe upon or misappropriate any such rights. In addition, our trademark rights and related registrations have been, are being and may be challenged and could be canceled or narrowed. Failure to protect our trademark rights could prevent us in the future from challenging third parties who use names and logos similar to our trademarks, which may in turn cause consumer confusion or negatively affect consumers’ perception of our brand and products. In addition, if we do not keep our trade secrets confidential, others may produce products with our recipes or formulations. Moreover, intellectual property disputes and proceedings and infringement claims may result in a significant distraction for management and significant expense, which may not be recoverable regardless of whether we are successful. Such proceedings may be protracted with no certainty of success, and an adverse outcome could subject us to liabilities, force us to cease use of certain trademarks or other intellectual property or force us to enter into licenses with others. Any one of these occurrences may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Offering and Ownership of Our ADSs

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate the material weaknesses, or if other control deficiencies are identified, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately, prevent fraud or file our periodic reports as a public company in a timely manner.

Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting and financial reporting personnel and other resources with which we address our internal control over financial reporting.

In the course of auditing our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended 2020 and 2019, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control environment driven by (i) our technology access related environment and change control processes not supporting an efficient or effective internal control framework, (ii) lack of documented policies and procedures in relation to our business processes and entity level controls as well as lack of evidence of performing controls and (iii) inadequate segregation of duties.

As defined in the standards established by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

 

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To remedy our identified material weaknesses, we are in the process of adopting several measures intended to improve our internal control over financial reporting, including: (i) implementing formal access and change controls, and making changes to our information technology systems such as implementing new systems and improving the control environment including the reduction of manual tasks; (ii) establishing comprehensive accounting guidelines in relation to our accounting policies, clarifying reporting requirements for, non-recurring and complex transactions, implementing a procedures manual and providing internal training to accounting and finance personnel in relation to policies and procedures, hiring additional accounting and finance personnel, and improving the month-end close process and establishing more robust and formalized processes supporting internal control over financial reporting; and (iii) securing adequate segregation of duties.

However, implementation of these measures, may not fully address the material weaknesses identified in our internal control over financial reporting and we cannot assure that we will be successful in remediating the material weaknesses. Our failure to correct the material weaknesses or our failure to discover and address any other material weaknesses or deficiencies could result in inaccuracies in our financial statements and impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and related regulatory filings on a timely basis.

Management’s initial certification under Section 404 is expected to be required with our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ending December 31, 2022. In support of such certifications, we will be required to document and make significant changes and enhancements, including hiring personnel in necessary functions with relevant experience. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, after we become a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation. As a result, we anticipate investing significant resources to enhance and maintain our financial controls, reporting system and procedures over the coming years.

While documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the future requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404.

Generally, if we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, it could result in material misstatements in our financial statements and could also impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and related regulatory filings on a timely basis. As a result, our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our issued equity instruments, including our ADSs, may be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

Our largest shareholder will continue to have significant influence over us after this offering, including significant influence over decisions that require the approval of shareholders.

Upon consummation of this offering, through our largest shareholder, Nativus Company Limited, entities affiliated with China Resources Verlinvest Health Investment Ltd. will own, in the aggregate, approximately

 

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47.5% (assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs in this offering) of the voting power represented by all our outstanding ADSs. As a result, our largest shareholder will continue to exercise significant influence over certain corporate matters requiring shareholder approval under Swedish law, including the election and removal of directors and the size of our board, any amendment of our amended and restated articles of association and any approval of significant corporate transactions (including a sale of substantially all of our assets), and will continue to have significant influence over our management and policies, despite not controlling a majority of our outstanding ordinary shares. Nativus Company Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of China Resources Verlinvest Health Investment Ltd., which is a joint venture that is 50% owned by Verlinvest S.A. and 50% owned by Blossom Key Holdings Limited. China Resources (Holdings) Company Limited (“CR Holdings”) is the sole shareholder of Blossom Key Holdings Limited, and CR Holdings is indirectly and wholly owned by China Resources Company Limited. The State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council and the National Council for Social Security Fund of the People’s Republic of China perform the duty of investor (as to 90.0222% and 9.9778% respectively) of China Resources Company Limited on behalf of the State Council.

Affiliates of China Resources Verlinvest Health Investment Ltd. are members of our board of directors. These board members are designees of China Resources Verlinvest Health Investment Ltd. and can take actions that have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us or discouraging others from making tender offers for our ADSs, which could prevent shareholders from receiving a premium for their ADSs.

Our operating results and the price of our ADSs may be volatile, and the market price of our ADSs after this offering may drop below the price you pay.

Our quarterly operating results are likely to fluctuate in the future in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, securities markets worldwide have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could subject the market price of our ADSs to wide price fluctuations regardless of our operating performance.

These and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, may cause our operating results and the market price and demand for our ADSs to fluctuate substantially. Fluctuations in our quarterly operating results could limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the market price and liquidity of ADSs. In addition, in the past, when the market price of ADSs has been volatile, holders have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the ADSs. If any of our shareholders brought a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management from our business, which could significantly harm our business, profitability and reputation.

We are eligible to be treated as an emerging growth company, as defined in the Securities Act, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our ADSs less attractive to investors because we may rely on these reduced disclosure requirements.

We are eligible to be treated as an emerging growth company, as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised financial accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We intend to take advantage of this extended transition period under the JOBS Act for adopting new or revised financial accounting standards.

For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may also take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including presenting only limited selected financial data and not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As a result, our

 

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shareholders may not have access to certain information that they may deem important. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if our total annual revenue exceeds $1.07 billion, if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during any three-year period, or if before that time we are a “large accelerated filer” under U.S. securities laws. We cannot predict if investors will find our ADSs less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ADSs and our ADS price may be more volatile.

We will be a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.

Upon the closing of this offering, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year and U.S. domestic issuers that are large accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 60 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation FD, which is intended to prevent issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of all of the above, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of a company that is not a foreign private issuer.

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

As discussed above, we are a foreign private issuer, and therefore, we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2021. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if (i) more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are owned by U.S. residents and (ii) a majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents, or we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. If we lose our foreign private issuer status, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of Nasdaq. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer, and accounting, reporting and other expenses in order to maintain a listing on a U.S. securities exchange. These expenses will relate to, among other things, the obligation to present our financial information in accordance with U.S. GAAP in the future.

 

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As we are a “foreign private issuer” and intend to follow certain home country corporate governance practices, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all Nasdaq corporate governance requirements.

As a foreign private issuer, we have the option to follow certain home country corporate governance practices rather than those of Nasdaq, provided that we disclose the requirements we are not following and describe the home country practices we are following. We intend to rely on this “foreign private issuer exemption” with respect to the Nasdaq rules for the quorum requirements applicable to the meetings of shareholders and the requirement that independent directors regularly meet in executive sessions where only independent directors are present. We may in the future elect to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all Nasdaq corporate governance requirements.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our ADSs. We intend to use $188.3 million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the SLL Agreement in full, $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, of the net proceeds from this offering to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities (see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities”) and the remainder of the net proceeds from this offering for working capital, to fund incremental growth, including our planned expansion, and other general corporate purposes. However, our use of these proceeds may differ substantially from our current plans. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could adversely affect our business and cause the price of our ADSs to decline. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you will suffer immediate and substantial dilution of your investment.

The initial public offering price of our ADSs is substantially higher than the net tangible book deficit per ADS. Therefore, if you purchase our ADSs in this offering, you will pay a price per ADS that substantially exceeds our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, you will experience immediate dilution of $14.78 per ADS, representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS after giving effect to this offering at the initial public offering price. See “Dilution” for more detail.

Participation in this offering by Baillie Gifford could reduce the public float for our ADSs.

Baillie Gifford, acting on behalf of a number of its clients has indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $500 million of ADSs in this offering at a price per ADS equal to the initial public offering price. However, because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, Baillie Gifford could determine to purchase more, less or no ADSs in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ADSs to Baillie Gifford. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ADSs purchased by Baillie Gifford as they will from any other ADSs sold to the public in this offering.

If Baillie Gifford is allocated all or a portion of the ADSs in which it has indicated an interest in this offering or more, and purchase any such ADSs, such purchase could reduce the available public float for our ADSs if Baillie Gifford holds these ADSs long term.

You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs.

ADS holders may only exercise voting rights with respect to the ordinary shares underlying their respective ADSs in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement, which provides that a holder may vote the

 

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ordinary shares underlying any ADSs for any particular matter to be voted on by our shareholders either by withdrawing the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs or, to the extent permitted by applicable law and as permitted by the depositary, by requesting a temporary registration as shareholder and authorizing the depositary to act as proxy. However, you may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares, and after such a withdrawal you would no longer hold ADSs, but rather you would directly hold the underlying ordinary shares. You also may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to request a temporary registration.

The depositary will try, as far as practical, to vote the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs as instructed by the ADS holders. In such an instance, if we ask for your instructions, the depositary, upon timely notice from us, will notify you of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot guarantee that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your ordinary shares or to withdraw your ordinary shares so that you can vote them yourself. If the depositary does not receive timely voting instructions from you, it may give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs; provided, however, that no such discretionary proxy shall be given with respect to any matter to be voted upon as to which we inform the depositary that (i) we do not wish such proxy to be given, (ii) substantial opposition exists or (iii) the rights of holders of ordinary shares may be adversely affected. Voting instructions may be given only in respect of a number of ADSs representing an integral number of ordinary shares or other deposited securities. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise any right to vote that you may have with respect to the underlying ordinary shares, and there may be nothing you can do if the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, the depositary is only required to notify you of any particular vote if it receives notice from us in advance of the scheduled meeting.

Purchasers of ADSs in this offering may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.

ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, holders and beneficial owners of ADSs irrevocably waive the right to a jury trial of any claim that they may have against us or the depositary arising from or relating to our ordinary shares, our ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws. The waiver continues to apply to claims that arise during the period when a holder holds the ADSs, even if the ADS holder subsequently withdraws the underlying ordinary shares.

However, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. In fact, you cannot waive our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. If we or the depositary opposed a demand for jury trial relying on above-mentioned jury trial waiver, it is up to the court to determine whether such waiver was enforceable considering the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law.

If this jury trial waiver provision is prohibited by applicable law, an action could nevertheless proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a jury trial waiver

 

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under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by a federal court or by the United States Supreme Court. Nonetheless, we believe that a jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York. In determining whether to enforce a jury trial waiver provision, New York courts will consider whether the visibility of the jury trial waiver provision within the agreement is sufficiently prominent such that a party has knowingly waived any right to trial by jury. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. In addition, New York courts will not enforce a jury trial waiver provision in order to bar a viable setoff or counterclaim sounding in fraud or one which is based upon a creditor’s negligence in failing to liquidate collateral upon a guarantor’s demand, or in the case of an intentional tort claim, none of which we believe are applicable in the case of the deposit agreement or the ADSs. If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary relating to the matters arising under the deposit agreement or our ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not have the right to a jury trial regarding such claims, which may limit and discourage lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary according to the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may have different outcomes compared to that of a jury trial, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Moreover, as the jury trial waiver relates to claims arising out of or relating to the ADSs or the deposit agreement, we believe that, as a matter of construction of the clause, the waiver would likely continue to apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to claims arising before the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares, and the waiver would most likely not apply to ADS holders who subsequently withdraw the ordinary shares represented by ADSs from the ADS facility with respect to claims arising after the withdrawal. However, to our knowledge, there has been no case law on the applicability of the jury trial waiver to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs from the ADS facility.

Holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares have limited choice of forum, which could limit your ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for complaints against us, the depositary or our respective directors, officers or employees.

The deposit agreement governing our ADSs provides that, (i) the deposit agreement and the ADSs will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, and (ii) as an owner of ADSs, you irrevocably agree that any legal action arising out of the deposit agreement and the ADSs involving us or the depositary may only be instituted in a state or federal court in the city of New York. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any our ADSs, whether by transfer, sale, operation of law or otherwise, shall be deemed to have notice of and have irrevocably agreed and consented to these provisions.

In connection with this offering, we are amending our articles of association and seeking shareholder approval to add a clause that states that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum and without infringing upon the Swedish forum provisions and without applying Chapter 7, Section 54 of the Swedish Companies Act, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York shall be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint filed in the United States asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. These forum provisions may increase your cost and limit your ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that you find favorable for disputes with us, the depositary or our and the depositary’s respective directors, officers or employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us, the depositary and our and the depositary’s respective directors, officers or employees. However, it is possible that a court could find either choice of forum provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions has been challenged in legal proceedings. It is possible that a court could find this type of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable.

To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the

 

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Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, actions by holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act, the Securities Act or the respective rules and regulations thereunder must be brought in a federal court in the city of New York. Holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

A significant portion of our total issued and outstanding ADSs are eligible to be sold into the market in the near future, which could cause the market price of our ADSs to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of ADSs intend to sell, could reduce the market price of our ADSs. After giving effect to the sale of ADSs in this offering, we will have 591,835,216 ordinary shares (including those represented by ADSs) outstanding after giving effect to (i) the conversion of all of our outstanding class B shares into 46,797,804 ordinary shares effected on May 5, 2021, (ii) the conversion of all of our outstanding class G shares into 1,405,944 ordinary shares effected on May 5, 2021, (iii) the exercise of all of our outstanding warrants into 39,317,319 ordinary shares in connection with and prior to the consummation of this offering and (iv) the issuance of 6,124,004 ordinary shares to convert a portion of the Bridge Facilities, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00, as described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities.” The ADSs sold in this offering or issuable pursuant to the equity awards we grant will be freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except as described in the next paragraph with respect to the lock-up arrangements and for any of our ADSs that may be held or acquired by our directors, executive officers and other affiliates, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, which will be restricted securities under the Securities Act. Restricted securities may not be sold in the public market unless the sale is registered under the Securities Act or an exemption from registration is available.

We, the Selling Shareholders, our executive officers, directors and holders of substantially all of our outstanding shares have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to dispose of or hedge any of our ADSs or securities convertible into or exchangeable for ADSs during the period from the date of this prospectus continuing through the date 180 days after the date of this prospectus, except with the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters. K2, Luxor and Santo Domingo Group have each also agreed to a lock-up agreement with the underwriters pursuant to which the ADSs purchased in the Concurrent Private Placements will be locked up for a period of 180 days, subject to certain exceptions. See “Prospectus Summary—Concurrent Private Placements” for additional information. Such ADSs will, however, be able to be resold after the expiration of the lock-up periods, as well as pursuant to customary exceptions thereto or upon the waiver of the lock-up arrangements. The ADSs of certain of our affiliates will only be able to be resold pursuant to the requirements of Rule 144. See “Shares and ADSs Eligible for Future Sale” for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our ADSs after this offering.

In the future, we may also issue additional securities if we need to raise capital or make acquisitions, which could constitute a material portion of our then-issued and outstanding ADSs.

We may not pay dividends on our ADSs in the future and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on the appreciation in the price of our ADSs.

We may not pay any cash dividends on our ADSs in the future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our

 

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board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is, and may be, limited by covenants of any future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. Therefore, any return on investment in our ADSs is solely dependent upon the appreciation of the price of our ADSs on the open market, which may not occur. See “Dividend Policy.”

Our shareholders may face difficulties in protecting their interests because we are a Swedish company.

We are, and will upon the consummation of this offering be, a Swedish company with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association and by the laws that govern companies incorporated in Sweden. The rights of shareholders to take legal action against our directors and us, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us are to a large extent governed by the laws of Sweden and may be different than the rights and obligations of shareholders and boards of directors in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. In the performance of its duties, our board is required by Swedish law to consider the interests of our company, shareholders, employees and other stakeholders, in all cases with due observation of the principles of reasonableness and fairness. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, the interests of our shareholders. Furthermore, the rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under the laws of Sweden may not be as clearly defined as under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in jurisdictions in the United States. Therefore, you may have more difficulty protecting your interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management or members of our board of directors than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of Swedish law and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the State of Delaware and their shareholders, see “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association.”

There may be difficulties in enforcing foreign judgments against us, our directors or our management, as well as against the Selling Shareholders.

Certain of our directors and management and certain of the other parties named in this prospectus reside outside the United States. Most of our assets and such persons’ assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for investors to effect service of process upon us within the United States or other jurisdictions, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. See “Enforcement of Civil Liabilities.”

In particular, investors should be aware that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of Sweden or any other applicable jurisdictions would recognize and enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or our management as well as against the Selling Shareholders predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States, or any state in the United States or entertain original actions brought in Sweden or any other applicable jurisdictions courts against us, our directors or our management, as well as against the Selling Shareholders predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

Oatly Group AB is a holding company with no operations of its own and, as such, it depends on its subsidiaries for cash to fund its operations and expenses, including future dividend payments, if any.

As a holding company, our principal source of cash flow will be distributions or payments from our operating subsidiaries. Therefore, our ability to fund and conduct our business, service our debt and pay dividends, if any, in the future will depend on the ability of our subsidiaries and intermediate holding companies to make upstream cash distributions or payments to us, which may be impacted, for example, by their ability to generate sufficient cash flow or limitations on the ability to repatriate funds whether as a result of currency

 

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liquidity restrictions, monetary or exchange controls or otherwise. Our operating subsidiaries and intermediate holding companies are separate legal entities, and although they are directly or indirectly wholly owned and controlled by us, they have no obligation to make any funds available to us, whether in the form of loans, dividends or otherwise. To the extent the ability of any of our subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to us is limited in any way, our ability to fund and conduct our business, service our debt and pay dividends, if any, could be harmed.

We may be treated as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in material adverse tax consequences for investors in the ADSs subject to U.S. federal income tax.

We would be classified as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for any taxable year if, after the application of certain look-through rules, either: (1) 75% or more of our gross income for such year is “passive income” as defined in the relevant provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or (2) 50% or more of the value of our assets, determined on the basis of a quarterly average, during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. Based on the currently anticipated market capitalization, which will fluctuate over time, and the current and anticipated composition of our income, assets and operations, we do not expect to be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year. However, our status as a PFIC in any taxable year requires a factual determination that depends on, among other things, the composition of our income, assets, and activities in each year, and can only be made annually after the close of each taxable year. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will not be classified as a PFIC for the current taxable year or for any future taxable year. If we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders”) holds the ADSs, the U.S. Holder may be subject to material adverse tax consequences upon a sale, exchange, or other disposition of the ADSs, or upon the receipt of distributions in respect of the ADSs.

Certain elections may be available that would result in alternative treatments (such as qualified electing fund treatment or mark-to-market treatment) if we are considered a PFIC. We do not intend to provide the information necessary for U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares to make qualified electing fund elections, which, if available, would result in tax treatment different from the general tax treatment for an investment in a PFIC. If we are treated as a PFIC with respect to a U.S. Holder (as defined below in the section titled “Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) for any taxable year, the U.S. Holder will be deemed to own shares in any of our subsidiaries that are also PFICs. However, an election for mark-to-market treatment would likely not be available with respect to any such subsidiaries. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors about the potential application of the PFIC rules to their investment in the ADSs. For further discussion, see “Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of our shares, such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

If as a result of the ownership of ADSs, a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly, or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our shares, such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” in our group. Because our group includes U.S. subsidiaries, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries could be treated as controlled foreign corporations (regardless of whether or not Oatly Group AB is treated as a controlled foreign corporation). A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to report annually and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and investments in U.S. property by controlled foreign corporations, regardless of whether or not the controlled foreign corporation makes any distributions. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. Failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject a United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such shareholder’s federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from

 

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starting. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether we are or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether any investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any such controlled foreign corporation, and we do not expect to furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. U.S. investors should consult its advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to an investment in us. The U.S. Internal Revenue Service has provided limited guidance on situations in which investors may rely on publicly available information to comply with their reporting and tax paying obligations with respect to foreign-controlled controlled foreign corporations.

Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities or assessments could affect our profitability, and audits by tax authorities could result in additional tax payments.

We are affected by various taxes imposed in different jurisdictions, including direct and indirect taxes imposed on our global activities. Significant judgment is required in determining our provisions for taxes, and there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. The amount of tax we pay is subject to ongoing audits and assessments by tax authorities, including in Sweden. If audits result in payments or assessments, our future results may include unfavorable adjustments to our tax liabilities, and we could be adversely affected. Any significant changes to the tax system in the jurisdictions where we operate could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

General Risk Factors

We cannot assure you that a market will develop for our ADSs or what the price of our ADSs will be, and public trading markets may experience volatility. Investors may not be able to resell their ADSs at or above the initial public offering price.

Before this offering, there was no public trading market for our ADSs, and we cannot assure you that one will develop or be sustained after this offering. If a market does not develop or is not sustained, it may be difficult for you to sell your ADSs. Public trading markets may also experience volatility and disruption. This may affect the pricing of the ADSs in the secondary market, the transparency and availability of trading prices, the liquidity of the ADSs and the extent of regulation applicable to us. We cannot predict the prices at which our ADSs will trade. The initial public offering price for our ADSs was determined through our negotiations with the underwriters and may not bear any relationship to the market price at which our ADSs will trade after this offering or to any other established criteria of the value of our business. It is possible that, in future quarters, our operating results may be below the expectations of securities analysts and investors. As a result of these and other factors, the price of our ADSs may decline.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our ADSs adversely, the price and trading volume of our ADSs could decline.

The trading market for our ADSs is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If any of the securities or industry analysts who cover us or may cover us in the future change their recommendation regarding our ADSs adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our ADSs would likely decline. If any securities or industry analyst who covers us or may cover us in the future were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the price or trading volume of our ADSs to decline.

We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

As a public company, and particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq and

 

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other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors. We also expect that as a public company, we may face increased demand for more detailed and more frequent reporting on environmental, social and corporate governance reports and disclosure.

We are evaluating these rules and regulations and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.

We are not currently required to comply with the rules of the SEC implementing Section 404 and therefore are not required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for that purpose. Upon becoming a publicly traded company, we will be required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will require management to certify financial and other information in our annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of control over financial reporting. Though we will be required to disclose material changes in internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis, we will not be required to make our first annual assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC. Additionally, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we will be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. We currently have limited accounting personnel and we have begun the process of evaluating the adequacy of our accounting personnel staffing level and other matters related to our internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404. If we identify one or more material weaknesses once we are a public company, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements. As a result, the market price of our ADSs could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our ADSs are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that relate to our current expectations and views of future events. These forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” These statements relate to events that involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Risk Factors,” which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions.

These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, these forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are not a guarantee of future performance. Actual outcomes may differ materially from the information contained in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including, without limitation, the risk factors set forth in “Risk Factors” and the following:

 

   

our history of losses and inability to achieve or sustain profitability;

 

   

reduced or limited availability of oats or other raw materials that meet our quality standards;

 

   

failure to obtain additional financing to achieve our goals or failure to obtain necessary capital when needed on acceptable terms;

 

   

damage or disruption to our production facilities;

 

   

harm to our brand and reputation as the result of real or perceived quality or food safety issues with our products;

 

   

our ability to successfully compete in our highly competitive markets;

 

   

reduction in the sales of our oatmilk varieties;

 

   

failure to expand our manufacturing and production capacity as we grow our business;

 

   

our ability to successfully remediate the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting; and

 

   

as a foreign private issuer, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results or performance may be materially different from what we expect.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately $1,038.1 million, based on the initial public offering price per ADS of $17.00, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses of the offering that are payable by us.

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ADSs by the Selling Shareholders.

The principal purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our ADSs, facilitate access to the public equity markets, increase our visibility in the marketplace, as well as to obtain additional capital. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering as follows:

 

   

$188.3 million to repay the SLL Agreement in full;

 

   

$10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities; and

 

   

the remainder for working capital, to fund incremental growth, including our planned expansion, and other general corporate purposes, however, we do not currently have any definitive or preliminary plans with respect to the use of proceeds for such purposes.

Borrowings under the SLL Agreement are repayable at the end of the term and carry an interest rate of the aggregate of the applicable margin and STIBOR, LIBOR or EURIBOR, depending on the denominated currency of amounts loaned. We intend to repay all amounts outstanding under the SLL Agreement in connection with this offering, and the SLL Agreement will be replaced by the SRCF Agreement. The Bridge Facilities are subject to a 15% interest rate, and in April 2021, the term of the Bridge Facilities was extended through the earlier of August 2021 or the completion of this offering. The proceeds from the SLL Agreement and the Bridge Facilities were primarily used for working capital. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities.”

The amount of what, and timing of when, we actually spend for these purposes may vary significantly and will depend on a number of factors, including our future revenue and cash generated by operations and the other factors described in “Risk Factors.” Accordingly, our board of directors will have broad discretion in deploying the net proceeds of this offering.

If the underwriters or their affiliates have a lending relationship with us, to the extent we use any of the net proceeds of this offering to repay any of our debt (including, but not limited to, repayment in full of the SLL Agreement), such underwriters or their affiliates may receive a portion of the net proceeds of this offering.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business.

However, if we do pay a cash dividend on our ordinary shares in the future, we will pay such dividend out of our profits or share premium (subject to solvency requirements) as permitted under Swedish law. Our board of directors has complete discretion regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, and our principal shareholders will be able to influence our dividend policy.

The amount of any future dividend payments we may make will depend on, among other factors, our strategy, future earnings, financial condition, cash flow, working capital requirements, capital expenditures, contractual restrictions and applicable provisions of our articles of association. For example, our SRCF Agreement contains limitations on our ability to pay dividends until we exercise our covenant conversion right. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Facilities.” Any profits or share premium we declare as dividends will not be available to be reinvested in our operations. Moreover, we are a holding company that does not conduct any business operations of our own. As a result, we are dependent upon cash dividends, distributions and other transfers from our subsidiaries to make dividend payments.

In the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we did not declare or pay any dividends.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The table below sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of March 31, 2021 derived from our unaudited interim financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus:

 

   

on an actual basis; and

 

   

on an as adjusted basis to reflect (i) the exercise of all outstanding warrants into 39,317,319 ordinary shares prior to the consummation of this offering; (ii) the conversion of all outstanding class B shares into 46,797,804 ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; (iii) the conversion of all outstanding class G shares into 1,405,944 ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; (iv) the issuance and sale of ADSs in this offering at the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us; (v) an additional $50 million drawn on the SLL Agreement since March 31, 2021 and the use of $188.3 million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the SLL Agreement in full, as described under “Use of Proceeds,” (vi) the use of $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, of the net proceeds from this offering to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities, as described under “Use of Proceeds” and (vii) the issuance of 6,124,004 ordinary shares to convert a portion of the Bridge Facilities, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00, as described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities.”

Investors should read this table in conjunction with our audited financial statements and our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Prospectus as well as “Use of Proceeds,” “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” There have been no significant adjustments to our capitalization since March 31, 2021.

 

     As of March 31, 2021  
     Actual     As Adjusted  
     (in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 88,605     $ 1,016,784  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total debt, including current portion(1)

     263,356       7,444  

Shareholders’ equity:

    

Issued capital:

    

Share capital

     84       103  

Other contributed capital

     448,188       1,628,912  

Foreign currency translation reserve

     (12,876     (12,876

Accumulated deficit

     (152,044     (153,972

Total equity attributable to shareholders of the parent

     283,352       1,462,167  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 546,708     $ 1,469,611  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Since March 31, 2021, we have drawn an additional $50 million on the SLL Agreement. In connection with this offering, we expect to use $188.3 million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the SLL Agreement in full and $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, of the net proceeds from this offering to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities, as described under “Use of Proceeds.”

The number of our ordinary shares shown as outstanding in the table above excludes 69,496,515 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our long-term incentive plan as described in “Management—2021 Incentive Award.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS and the net tangible book value per share after this offering.

At March 31, 2021, we had a historical net tangible book value of $134.6 million, corresponding to a net tangible book value of $0.28 per share, or $0.28 per ADS, based on an ordinary share to ADS ratio of one to one. Our historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total assets less our total liabilities, excluding goodwill and other intangible assets, divided by the total number of our ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021. At March 31, 2021, we had a pro forma net tangible book value of $275.3 million, corresponding to a net tangible book value of $0.52 per share, or $0.52 per ADS, based on an ordinary share to ADS ratio of one to one. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total assets less our total liabilities, excluding goodwill and other intangible assets, divided by the total number of our ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021, after giving effect to (i) the exercise of all outstanding warrants into 39,317,319 ordinary shares prior to the consummation of this offering; (ii) the conversion of all outstanding class B shares into 46,797,804 ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; (iii) the conversion of all outstanding class G shares into 1,405,944 ordinary shares, which was effected on May 5, 2021; (iv) an additional $50 million drawn on the SLL Agreement since March 31, 2021 and the use of $188.3 million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay the SLL Agreement in full, as described under “Use of Proceeds,” (v) the use of $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, of the net proceeds from this offering to repay a portion of the Bridge Facilities, as described under “Use of Proceeds” and (vi) the issuance of 6,124,004 ordinary shares to convert a portion of the Bridge Facilities, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00, as described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facilities.”

After giving further effect to the sale by us of 64,688,000 ADSs (representing 64,688,000 ordinary shares) in this offering at the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value at March 31, 2021 would have been approximately $1,313 million, representing $2.22 per share or $2.22 per ADS.

The following table illustrates our pro forma net tangible book value reflecting the adjustments described above.

 

     (in millions, except
share numbers)
 

Historical net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021

   $ 134.6  

As adjusted increase in net tangible book value

   $ 1,178.8  
  

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value

   $ 1,313.4  

As adjusted number of ordinary shares outstanding

     591,835,216  

As adjusted net tangible book value per share

   $ 2.22  

This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $1.94 per share or $1.94 per ADS to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $14.78 per share or $14.78 per ADS to new investors purchasing ADSs in this offering at the initial public offering price. Dilution per ADS to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per ADS after this offering from the initial public offering price per ADS paid by new investors.

 

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The following table illustrates this dilution to new investors purchasing ADSs in the offering.

 

Initial public offering price per ADS

      $ 17.00  

Historical net tangible book value per ADS as of March 31, 2021

   $ 0.28     

Increase in net tangible book value per ADS attributable to this offering

   $ 1.94     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per ADS after this offering

      $ 2.22  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per ADS to new investors in this offering

      $ 14.78  

The following table summarizes, as of March 31, 2021, the total number of ordinary shares purchased from us, the total consideration paid to us and the average price per share paid by the existing shareholders and by new investors purchasing ADSs in this offering:

 

     Ordinary Shares
Purchased (including
those represented by
ADSs)
    Total Consideration     Average
Price per
Share
(including
those
represented
by ADSs)
 
     Number      Percent     Amount in
thousands
     Percent  

Existing shareholders

     527,147,216        89.1   $ 502,886        31.4   $ 0.95  

New investors

     64,688,000        10.9     1,099,696        68.6     17.00  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

     591,835,216        100.0   $ 1,602,582        100.0   $ 2.71  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

The total number of ordinary shares reflected in the discussion and tables above is based on ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021 on an as adjusted basis and does not reflect the ordinary shares purchased by new investors from the Selling Shareholders.

The table and discussion above include 39,317,319 ordinary shares to be issued upon exercise of the outstanding warrants that vest upon consummation of this offering.

Sales by the Selling Shareholders in this offering and the Concurrent Private Placements will reduce the number of ordinary shares held by existing shareholders to 499,326,421, or approximately 84.3% of the total number of ordinary shares outstanding after the offering, assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs in this offering, or 486,670,021, or approximately 82.2% of the total number of ordinary shares outstanding after the offering, assuming full exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs in this offering.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB. The selected historical consolidated financial information presented as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of March 31, 2021 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 has been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for a fair presentation of the results of the unaudited interim periods. Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results expected in any future period.

The financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,“Use of Proceeds,” “Capitalization,” “Risk Factors” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     Three Months Ended March 31,     Year Ended December 31,  
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
    

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations:

        

Revenue

     $140,052       $84,244       $421,351       $204,047  

Cost of goods sold

     (98,118     (56,961     (292,107     (137,462
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     41,934       27,283       129,244       66,585  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Research and development expenses

     (3,092     (1,179     (6,831     (4,310

Selling, general and administrative expenses

     (66,807     (30,841     (167,792     (93,443

Other operating (expense)/income

     (550     (434     (1,714     409  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

     (28,515     (5,171     (47,093     (30,759
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Finance income and expenses, net

     (1,920     (2,650     (10,857     (3,608
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before tax

     (30,435     (7,821     (57,950     (34,367
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax expense

     (1,948    
(352

    (2,411     (1,258
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss for the period, attributable to shareholders of the parent

     $(32,383     $(8,173     $(60,361     $(35,625
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     Three Months Ended March 31,     Year Ended December 31,  
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
    

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows:

        

Net cash used in operating activities

     $(29,200     $718       $(44,308     $(39,117

Net cash used in investing activities

     (48,950     (28,666     (141,373     (64,686

Net cash from financing activities

     62,402       73,666       273,907       95,541  

 

     As at March 31,       As at December 31,  
     2021      2020      2019  
    

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position:

        

Cash and cash equivalents

     $88,605        $105,364        $10,571  

Total assets

    
753,737
 
     678,929        349,220  

Total liabilities

     470,385        352,843        161,419  

Total equity attributable to shareholders of the parent

     283,352        326,086        187,801  

 

 

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     Three Months Ended
March 31,
    Year Ended
December 31,
 
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
    

(in thousands)

 

Other Financial Data:

        

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

   $ (22,470   $ (1,306   $ (32,282   $ (20,743

 

(1)

Adjusted EBITDA is a financial measure that is not calculated in accordance with IFRS. We define Adjusted EBITDA as loss for the period attributable to shareholders of the parent adjusted to exclude, when applicable, income tax expense, finance expenses, finance income, depreciation and amortization expense, share-based compensation expense and IPO preparation and transaction costs. See “Prospectus SummarySummary Consolidated Financial Data” for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to loss for the period attributable to shareholders of the parent, the most directly comparable IFRS financial measure.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the section entitled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following discussion is based on our financial information prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described in the Risk Factors section of this prospectus. See Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

Overview

We are the world’s original and largest oatmilk company. For over 25 years, we have exclusively focused on developing expertise around oats: a global power crop with inherent properties suited for sustainability and human health. Our commitment to oats has resulted in core technical advancements that enabled us to unlock the breadth of the dairy portfolio, including milks, ice cream, yogurt, cooking creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks.

Since our founding, we have had a bold vision for a food system that’s better for people and the planet. We believe that transforming the food industry is necessary to face humanity’s greatest challenges across climate, environment, health and lifestyle. Traditional food production is one of the biggest drivers of environmental impact. Food production uses about half of all habitable land on earth, requires large amounts of resources, emits greenhouse gases and harms biodiversity. At the same time, today’s food system—and often our eating habits—does not meet our nutritional needs, driving the prevalence of non-communicable diseases like malnutrition, obesity and heart and vascular diseases. Through our products and actions as a company, we work to grow the plant-based movement and help people shift from traditional dairy to plant-based products and enact positive societal and industry change. Sustainability is at the core of our business and actionable in our products: on average, a liter of Oatly product consumed in place of cow’s milk results in around 80% less greenhouse gas emissions, 79% less land usage and 60% less energy consumption. This equation is our primary mechanism for impact. Our products make it easy for people to turn what they eat and drink into personal moments of healthy joy without excessively taxing the planet’s resources in the process. Beyond the inherent properties of our products, we execute a sustainability agenda across our value chain that encompasses agriculture, innovation, production, advertising and more. Sustainability at Oatly is far more than achieving certain key performance indicators and corporate policies—it is a mindset that helps us navigate business decisions and build a culture that is singularly focused on pushing the boundaries of the plant-based movement.

 

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In 2012, almost 20 years after we developed our core oat technology, we appointed a new management team with a bold vision for Oatly. Chief Executive Officer Toni Petersson brought an outsider’s view to the food industry and a fresh take on the company’s mission, building from Oatly’s deep heritage of oat-based food science. They set out to build a new type of food company with core values of health and sustainability, supported by an unconventional approach to brand, commercial strategy and organizational structure. Since then, we have rapidly scaled our company, expanded our global footprint and achieved the following significant milestones:

 

 

LOGO

In the historically commoditized dairy category, we have created a brand phenomenon that speaks to emerging consumer priorities of sustainability, trust and health. Our integrated in-house team of creative, communications and customer relations experts reach consumers in a way that is honest and human. Across many kinds of media, we create thought-provoking, conversation-sparking content to engage people around our mission and drive awareness for the brand. Our company values are communicated not only in the things we say, but also in the things we do—like putting carbon impact labels on our packaging and launching public campaigns to inspire policy change. The voice, actions, products and values represented by the Oatly brand drive our commercial success and mission.

We have proven global resonance with commercial success in more than 20 markets, across multiple channels and types of retail, foodservice and e-commerce partners. As of December 31, 2020, we offered dozens of product lines and varieties across approximately 60,000 retail doors and 32,200 coffee shops. Our products are sold through a variety of channels, from independent coffee shops to continent-wide partnerships with established franchises like Starbucks, from food retailers like Target and Tesco to premium natural grocers and corner stores, as well as through e-commerce channels such as Alibaba’s Tmall. To enter new markets, we use a foodservice-led expansion strategy that builds awareness and loyalty for our brand through the specialty coffee market and ultimately drives increased sales through retail channels. We have tailored this strategy in many successful international market launches, including the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States and China.

Our growth in China demonstrates the effectiveness of this expansion strategy. We successfully entered the Chinese market in 2018 through the specialty coffee and tea channel, which we have since scaled to over 8,000 doors at the end of 2020. As a result of the consumer excitement we built around the Oatly brand with this launch, we were able to rapidly scale our regional presence through a strategic e-commerce partnership with Alibaba and an exclusive branded partnership with Starbucks in China, with over 4,700 locations in China exclusive to us as of December 31, 2020. Within approximately two years of entering the Chinese market, we

 

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had over 9,500 foodservice and retail points of sale in total with a growth rate of over 450% as of December 31, 2020. We have built a new generation of plant-based milk consumers by converting traditional dairy milk drinkers to Oatly and by attracting new drinkers to the category altogether. The awareness and in-context trial achieved in the specialty coffee and tea channel was critical to educate the market about plant-based dairy and establish our leadership in the region.

Our brand has excelled on a global scale, as evidenced by the following market statistics:

 

   

In 2020, Oatly contributed the highest amount of sales growth to the dairy alternatives drinks category across each of our key markets - the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden.

 

   

In our home market of Sweden, we had a 53% market share of the total sales in the alternative dairy products non-milk based category as of 2020, according to Nielsen.

 

   

In the United Kingdom, Germany the United States and Sweden, we are the highest selling brand in the oat category by retail sales value, which is the largest category within dairy alternatives in the United Kingdom and Germany and is the fastest-growing category within the United States.

 

   

Our 2020 year-over-year retail sales growth rates were 99% in the United Kingdom, according to IRI Infoscan, 199% in Germany and 182% in the United States, according to Nielsen. Our growth led the increase in demand for oat-based products. Since 2018, when we launched our new retail strategy in Germany, oatmilk’s market share of sales in the retail plant-based dairy category has grown from approximately 23% for the rolling four week period ended January 2018 to approximately 60% for the rolling four week period ended December 2020, according to Nielsen.

We also believe that global demand for Oatly products has far outpaced our supply. As we continue to scale, we have a significant opportunity to satisfy unmet demand and leverage our brand success to expand our product portfolio. We believe owning and controlling our global operating footprint is paramount since this enables us to apply our own standards of quality, sustainability and flexibility for innovation, while achieving more attractive production economics, as demonstrated by our fully owned manufacturing capabilities in Sweden. Globally, as of March 2021, we had four Oatly factories online and three factories planned or under construction. We supplement our owned factories with a diversified network of deeply vetted third-party co-manufacturing partners that help us drive growth by providing the necessary speed and flexibility and improve our ability to meet consumer demand, commence pilot projects and support new product launches.

Our historical financial performance reflects the scaled and global growth profile of our company. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we reported revenue of $140.1 million, a 66.2% increase from $84.2 million in the same period in 2020. In 2020, we reported revenue of $421.4 million, a 106.5% increase from $204.0 million in 2019. This growth outpaces our year-over-year growth in 2019 of 72.9%, representing our accelerating momentum. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we generated gross profit of $41.9 million, representing a margin of 29.9% and a loss for the period of $32.4 million. In 2020, we generated gross profit of $129.2 million, representing a margin of 30.7%, and, as a result of our continued focus on our growth, a loss for the year of $60.4 million, reflecting our continued investment in production, brand awareness, new markets and product development. Going forward, we intend to continue to invest in our innovation capabilities, build our manufacturing footprint and expand our consumer base all supporting our growth trajectory.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

We believe that the growth of our business and our future success are dependent upon many factors. While each of these factors presents a significant opportunity for us, these factors also pose important challenges that we must successfully address in order for us to sustain the growth of our business and improve our results of operations.

Expand household penetration

We have not only positioned our brand to capitalize on the growing consumer interest in sustainable, plant-based foods and dairy alternatives, but we have become a driving force behind increased consumer awareness

 

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and transition from traditional dairy consumers to Oatly. We believe that while adoption of dairy alternatives is still in infancy, the rate of adoption is accelerating. Based on Consumer Insights, we found that 35% to 40% of the adult population is now purchasing plant-based milk and that almost 70% of these individuals started purchasing the product within the last two years. We believe there is substantial opportunity to grow our consumer base, increase the velocity at which households purchase our products and disrupt the global dairy market of approximately $600 billion in the retail channel alone. Although Oatly has been the main growth driver of the dairy alternatives category in each of our core markets, the category still accounts for only 4% to 9% of total milk consumption in Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany as of January 2021, according to Consumer Insights. We intend to increase consumption by continuing to invest in branding, advertising and marketing to educate consumers about our sustainability, our values and the premium quality of our products. We believe these efforts will generate further demand for our products and ultimately expand our consumer base. At the end of the day, not all plant-based dairy products are created equal or are inherently sustainable, and we believe the actionable sustainable impact of choosing an Oatly product will resonate strongly with our consumers.

Our ability to attract new consumers will depend upon, among other things, the perceived quality and value of our products, the offerings of our competitors and the effectiveness of our branding and advertising efforts. Our performance depends significantly on factors that may affect the level and pattern of consumer spending in the global plant-based food market in which we operate.

Expand geographic footprint across foodservice channel

We believe there is a significant opportunity to expand the sales of our products in the foodservice channel. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the foodservice channel accounted for 25% of our revenue with a presence in more than 32,200 locations including coffee shops across more than 20 countries globally. Our brand has a differentiated value proposition with consumers, who are increasingly demanding tasty, sustainably and ethically produced ingredients when consuming beverages and eating outside of their homes. We believe that more consumers will look for our products across a range of foodservice partners, with our products as on-menu listings, branding ingredients and more. We believe that our branded Oatly products as ingredients in popular beverages will drive traffic and purchases in the foodservice channel.

We also believe that branded foodservice offerings will further help drive consumer awareness of our brand and purchase rates of our products in the retail and e-commerce channels. One example of our successful foodservice programs is with Starbucks, which as of December 31, 2020, spanned across approximately 8,000 locations in the United States and Asia. In addition, on March 1, 2021, Starbucks announced that Oatly would be the exclusive oatmilk added to its core U.S. menu nationwide. To enter new markets, we use a foodservice-led expansion strategy that builds awareness and presents a high-quality brand experience via the specialty coffee market and ultimately drives pull through retail channels. We have tailored this playbook for multiple successful international market launches, including the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States and China. We intend to continue to invest in relationships with foodservice operators, including supporting joint marketing and advertising of our products. Expansion in this channel will depend on our ability to successfully partner with foodservice operators in a manner that effectively presents a high-quality brand and value proposition to consumers.

Grow within retail channels globally

We believe that our ability to increase the number of customers that sell our products to consumers is an indicator of our market penetration and our future business opportunities. As of December 31, 2020, our products were available from approximately 60,000 retailers, ranging from food retailers like Target and Tesco to premium natural grocers and corner stores.

We expect the retail channel to be a significant source of revenue in the future. By increasing our distribution points and capturing greater shelf space, continuing to drive velocity increase and increasing our

 

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stock keeping unit count, we believe there is meaningful upside for further growth with existing retail customers. Additionally, we believe there is a significant opportunity to increase distribution by adding new retail customers. We also believe there are significant further long-term opportunities in additional distribution channels, including globally across convenience, drugstores and clubs. Our ability to execute on this strategy will also increase our opportunities for incremental sales to consumers, expanding our reach and household penetration. To accomplish these objectives, we intend to continue building consumer awareness of and demand for our brand and utilizing our authentic, people-focused brand building and advertising practices in retail environments.

Our ability to grow within the retail channel will depend on a number of factors, such as our customers’ satisfaction with the sales, product velocities and profitability of our products as well as increasing consumer awareness and demand for sustainable, plant-based beverage and food products.

Scale our e-commerce capabilities

We believe there is significant opportunity to drive growth through the e-commerce channel, which currently is most established in China and the United Kingdom. Supported by our online creative content, our e-commerce channel is highly complementary to our physical retail presence. Our e-commerce strategy is focused on strategically partnering with leading third-party platforms to market our products and increase our reach.

We believe our success in the e-commerce channel in China demonstrates our potential for increased e-commerce penetration in other markets. In China, our strong presence on Tmall.com (owned by Alibaba), JD.com and other mainstream e-commerce platforms has accelerated our revenue growth. In 2020, e-commerce sales accounted for 21% of our revenue in China, representing a larger percentage of sales compared to our other markets. On Tmall.com, we outsold our plant-based competitors by at least three times in 2020. Furthermore, our brand and products have earned multiple acclaims from our e-commerce partners. In 2019, we received the “Most Innovative Brand” and “Annual Exemplary Brand” awards from Tmall.com, and we are Alibaba’s chosen e-commerce partner for the plant-based category. We believe there is a significant opportunity to replicate our success in China and grow the e-commerce channel penetration across our markets to broaden our reach as we scale.

Expand global production capacity and increase margins

To date, our growth has been constrained by our production capacity, as consumer demand for our products continues to outpace our global capacity. As we scale, we believe we have significant opportunity to satisfy unmet demand and roll out our full product portfolio. Our ability to grow and meet future demand will be affected by our ability to properly plan for and add global production capacity in our key customer and consumer markets. Accordingly, we will continue to make significant strategic investments in our manufacturing and production capabilities. Our regional teams utilize multiple production models to add capacity and help us meet the significant consumer demand for our plant-based products. These include the use of end-to-end self-manufacturing, hybrid and co-packing facilities. See “Business—Supply Chain Operations” for more information. In each model, we are working towards enhancing our manufacturing scale with speed, quality and innovation while improving our economic profile. For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 52% of our products were produced through the co-packing and complete outsourcing model, 24% through a hybrid model and 24% through our own end-to-end manufacturing. In the long term, we plan for the majority of our production to be through a full end-to-end production model, as we believe this will allow us to drive speed to market and have the strongest product quality, economics and sustainability integration.

The majority of our capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2020 reflect our global, strategic production capacity investments, and we expect this to continue for the foreseeable future. We are currently in the process of significantly expanding our existing self and hybrid manufacturing operations at our Landskrona,

 

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Sweden and Vlissingen, Netherlands facilities, respectively, with additional capacity available in the first quarter of 2021. In addition, we recently began production at our facility in Ogden, Utah (self-manufacturing), and we expect to begin production at a new facility in Singapore (hybrid) in the first half of 2021 and at a facility in Maanshan in the Anhui province in eastern China (self-manufacturing) during the second half of 2021, achieving approximately one billion liters of finished goods equivalent of oat base capacity by December 2022. We also recently announced our plans to construct a facility in Peterborough, the United Kingdom. We are also investing in improvements to our existing facilities and manufacturing equipment. We are financing these expansions and improvements through a combination of cash, including the proceeds of our private placement in July 2020, our credit facilities described under “—Credit Facilities” and the leasing arrangements described under “—Contractual Obligations and Commitments.” We expect to continue to use this combination of financing in addition to proceeds from this offering to fund our continued expansion. In the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, we invested $20.8 million, $53.6 million and $134.3 million, respectively, in property, plant and equipment to expand our production capacity.

Our demonstrated end-to-end manufacturing footprint in Sweden proves that our transition to a self-manufacturing footprint will result in an improved margin profile, and we believe that as we continue to scale our production capacity, minimize the use of third-party co-packers, identify raw materials sourcing, labor and distribution costs efficiencies, as well as spread other production-related costs over greater manufacturing volumes over time, our manufacturing costs on a per unit basis will decrease and improve our gross margin profile.

Expand product offerings

For more than 25 years, we have had a culture of innovation, developing oat-based products that are specifically designed for human nutrition. Our results-oriented innovation ensures continuous market leadership on commercial and sustainability vectors. We intend to continue to invest in research and development both locally and through our Research Hubs to improve upon our existing products and create innovative new products. Based on our commercial success of products such as our frozen desserts, Oatgurt and spreads, we have proven that there is strong consumer demand for Oatly to launch new products across the entire dairy portfolio. We believe there is an opportunity to expand into additional value-added, plant-based food products or dairy alternatives that match existing dairy category product offerings. We expect oatmilk will be our largest source of revenue for the foreseeable future. Our goal is to continue to roll out our existing product categories across the markets in which we operate and expand upon our product line over time to increase our growth opportunity and reduce product-specific risks through diversification into multiple products, each designed to be used daily by consumers. We believe that investments in innovation will contribute to our long-term growth by reinforcing our efforts to increase awareness around our brand’s sustainable plant-based products, ultimately aiding our expansion of household penetration.

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our business operations and customer and consumer demand. Although certain government restrictions around the world imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic have begun to be lifted and certain exceptions to these restrictions have allowed for takeaway and delivery, which have enabled certain of our customers to continue to generate business, we experienced a deterioration in sales to coffee shops and restaurant customers during the second and third quarters of 2020 as stay-at-home orders became and remained more widespread. However, we also experienced an increase in retail demand beginning in the second quarter of 2020 as consumers shifted toward more at-home consumption, and we transitioned our distribution to meet this shift. The increase in sales from these channels may not fully offset the decline in revenue from our foodservice customers.

We have implemented and continue to practice a series of physical distancing and safety practices at our production facilities, which may result in increases in long-term operation costs. If we are forced to make further modifications or scale back hours of production in response to the pandemic, we expect our business, financial

 

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condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. Because we currently sell all products we produce, if we were forced to close any of our facilities as a result of the pandemic or any new government regulations imposed in any of the countries in which our facilities operate, this would materially affect our results of operations. To date, other than one closure for a few days at our Vlissingen facility in mid-April 2021, we have not closed any of our production facilities in response to the pandemic, but we have experienced delays in the construction of our new facilities in Singapore and Ogden as a result of COVID-19, and there can be no assurance that there will not be closures or additional delays in the future as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has also negatively impacted our rate of research and innovation, as we have experienced delays in tests and launches of our new products.

The environment remains highly uncertain, and we are continuing to closely monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business. See “Risk Factors—The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and we expect will continue to have, certain negative impacts on our business, and such impacts have had, and are expected to continue to have, a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Components of Results of Operations

The following briefly describes the components of revenue and expenses as presented in our consolidated statements of operations.

Revenue

We generate revenue primarily from sales of our oatmilk and other oat-based products across our three geographic regions: EMEA, Americas and Asia. Our customers include retailers, e-commerce channels, coffee shops and other specialty providers within the foodservice industry.

EMEA has been our largest region to date, followed by Americas and Asia. Currently, our primary markets in EMEA are Sweden, the United Kingdom and Germany. In the Americas, substantially all of our revenue to date can be attributed to the United States, and in Asia, the majority of our revenue is generated in China. The channel and product mix vary by country, where our more mature markets, such as Sweden and Finland, have a broader product portfolio available to customers and consumers.

We routinely offer sales discounts and promotions through various programs to customers. These programs include rebates, temporary on-shelf price reductions, retailer advertisements, product coupons and other trade activities. The expense associated with these discounts and promotions is estimated and recorded as a reduction in total gross revenue in order to arrive at reported net revenue. We anticipate that these promotional activities could impact our net revenue and that changes in such activities could impact period-over-period results.

To date, our revenue growth has been constrained by limitations in our production capacity, and we plan to significantly increase our capacity to support our continued expansion and revenue growth across our three geographic regions.

Cost of goods sold

Cost of goods sold consists primarily of the cost of oats and other raw materials, product packaging, co-manufacturing fees, direct labor and associated overhead costs and property, plant and equipment depreciation. Our cost of goods sold also includes warehousing and transportation of inventory. We expect our cost of goods sold to increase in absolute dollars to support our growth. However, we expect that, over time, cost of goods sold will decrease as a percentage of net revenue, as a result of the scaling of our business and optimizing our production footprint.

Gross profit and margin

Gross profit consists of our net revenue less costs of goods sold. We have scaled our production quickly, with a priority on growth and meeting demand over gross profit and margin optimization. As we continue to

 

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expand production by moving production capacity closer to our customers and consumers, shifting towards hybrid and end-to-end production solutions, we expect to gradually improve our manufacturing operational performance and leverage the cost of our fixed production and staff costs.

Operating expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel related expenses for our research and development staff, including salaries, benefits and bonuses, but also third-party consultancy fees and expenses incurred related to product trial runs. Our research and development efforts are focused on enhancements to our existing product formulations and production processes in addition to the development of new products. We expect these expenses to increase somewhat in absolute dollars but to slightly decrease as a percentage of revenue as we continue to scale production.

Selling, general and administrative expenses include primarily personnel related expenses, brand awareness and advertising costs, costs associated with consumer promotions, product samples and sales aids. These also include outbound shipping and handling costs and other functional related selling and marketing expenses, depreciation and amortization expense on non-manufacturing assets and other miscellaneous operating items. Selling, general and administrative expenses also include auditor fees and other third-party consultancy fees, expenses related to management, finance and accounting, information technology, human resources and other office functions. We expect selling, general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we increase our expansion efforts to meet our product demand but to decrease as a percentage of revenue over time.

Other operating (expense)/income consists primarily of net foreign exchange gains (losses) on operating related activities.

Net finance expense primarily consists of interest expense related to loans from credit institutions, interest expense on lease liabilities and foreign exchange losses attributable to our financing arrangements.

Income tax expense represents both current and deferred income tax expenses. Current tax expenses primarily represent income taxes based on income in multiple foreign jurisdictions.

 

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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth the consolidated statements of operations in U.S. dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the periods presented.

 

    Three Months Ended March 31,     Year Ended December 31,  
    2021     2020     2020     2019  
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
 

Revenue

  $ 140,052       100   $ 84,244       100   $ 421,351       100.0   $ 204,047       100.0

Cost of goods sold

    (98,118     (70.1 )%      (56,961     (67.6 )%      (292,107     (69.3 )%      (137,462     (67.4 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

  $ 41,934       29.9 %    $ 27,283       32.4 %    $ 129,244       30.7   $ 66,585       32.6
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Research and development expenses

    (3,092     (2.2 )%      (1,179     (1.4 )%      (6,831     (1.6 )%      (4,310     (2.1 )% 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    (66,807     (47.7 )%      (30,841     (36.6 )%      (167,792     (39.8 )%      (93,443     (45.8 )% 

Other operating (expense)/income

    (550     (0.4 )%      (434     (0.5 )%      (1,714     (0.4 )%      409       0.2
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

    (28,515 )      (20.4 )%      (5,171 )      (6.1 )%      (47,093     (11.2 )%      (30,759     (15.1 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Finance income and expenses, net

    (1,920     (1.4 )%      (2,650     (3.1 )%      (10,857     (2.6 )%      (3,608     (1.8 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before tax

    (30,435 )      (21.7 )%      (7,821 )      (9.3 )%      (57,950     (13.8 )%      (34,367     (16.8 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax expense

    (1,948     (1.4 )%      (352     (0.4 )%      (2,411     (0.6 )%      (1,258     (0.6 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss for the year, attributable to shareholders of the parent

  $ (32,383 )      (23.1 )%    $ (8,173 )      (9.7 )%    $ (60,361     (14.3 )%    $ (35,625     (17.5 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020

Revenue

Revenue increased by $55.8 million, or 66.2%, to $140.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, net of sales discounts, rebates and trade promotions from $84.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was primarily a result of the additional supply coming from our facilities to meet the growing demand we have for our products.

EMEA, the Americas and Asia accounted for 58.3%, 23.9% and 17.8% of our total revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2021, respectively, as compared to 70.2%, 24.1% and 5.7% of our total revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2020, respectively.

Cost of goods sold

Cost of goods sold increased by $41.2 million, or 72.3%, to $98.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $57.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was primarily a result of higher revenue across our three segments.

Gross profit and margin

Gross profit increased by $14.7 million, or 53.7%, to $41.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $27.3 million in the same period in 2020. Gross margin decreased by 2.5%, to 29.9% for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from 32.4% for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was due to a number of factors, including a change in segment and customer mix and higher logistics expenses in EMEA and the United States. We also experienced higher container rates for our shipments from EMEA to Asia.

 

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Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses increased by $1.9 million, or 162.3%, to $3.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, and this increase was primarily due to an increase of $1.6 million in employee related expenses.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $36.0 million, or 116.6%, to $66.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $30.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. This increase primarily resulted from higher branding and marketing expenses of $12.7 million, including our Super Bowl commercial and other campaigns, $11.0 million in employee related expenses as we continue to invest in our growth, $7.1 million in legal, contractor and other professional fees in preparation for this offering and $4.4 million of increased customer distribution costs as a consequence of higher revenue.

Other operating (expense)/income

Other operating expense increased by $116 thousand, or 26.7%, to $550 thousand for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $434 thousand for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was primarily a result of an increase in foreign exchange losses on operating activities.

Net finance expense

Net finance expense decreased by $0.7 million, or 27.5%, to $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $2.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase in interest expense was offset by increases in both capitalized interest costs on our ongoing capex projects and foreign exchange gains on financing activities.

Income tax expense

Income tax expense increased by $1.6 million, or 453.4%, to $2.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $0.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was driven by higher taxable income in certain jurisdictions.

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

Revenue

Revenue increased by $217.3 million, or 106.5%, to $421.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, net of sales discounts, rebates and trade promotions, from $204.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was primarily a result of additional supply provided from our Millville, New Jersey and Vlissingen, the Netherlands plants. In addition, we launched an exclusive arrangement with Starbucks in Asia, which created a significant demand for our oatmilk products in China in particular. Our revenue increased despite the partial shutdown of the food services channel in some of our larger markets in EMEA and the United States due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as we offset this decline with a significant increase in retail volumes.

EMEA, the Americas and Asia accounted for 63.5%, 23.7% and 12.7% of our total revenue in the year ended December 31, 2020, respectively, as compared to 75.8%, 19.2% and 5.0% of our total revenue in the year ended December 31, 2019, respectively.

Cost of goods sold

Cost of goods sold increased by $154.6 million, or 112.5%, to $292.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $137.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase was primarily the result of higher revenue across our three segments.

 

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Gross profit and margin

Gross profit increased by $62.7 million, or 94.1%, to $129.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $66.6 million. Gross margin decreased by 1.9%, to 30.7% for the year ended December 31, 2020 from 32.6% for the year ended December 31, 2019, which is due to a number of factors, including a change in channel mix from foodservice to retail, our greater reliance on co-packer outsourcing production compared to 2019 as well as an increase in logistics costs. The COVID-19 pandemic and changing consumption patterns increased demand for logistics services, resulting in higher freight rates during the second half of 2020 across our segments. We also experienced higher container rates for our shipments from EMEA to Asia during 2020.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses increased by $2.5 million, or 58.5%, to $6.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $4.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. However, these expenses declined as a percentage of revenue to 1.6% in 2020 from 2.1% in 2019. The increase in expenses was primarily due to an increase of employee related expenses amounting to $1.5 million.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $74.3 million, or 79.6%, to $167.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $93.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase primarily resulted from higher employee related expenses of $25.0 million as we increased our investments in growth, $14.0 million in legal and other professional fees, $13.7 million of increased customer distribution costs as a consequence of higher revenue and $13.7 million in additional branding expenses.

Other operating (expense)/income

Other operating (expense)/income decreased by $2.1 million, or (519.1)%, to $(1.7) million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Other operating (expense)/income consists primarily of net foreign exchange gains and losses on operating activities.

Net finance expense

Finance income increased by $0.5 million, or 995.7%, to $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $47 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to foreign exchange gains.

Finance expenses increased by $7.7 million, or 211.1%, to $11.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $3.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase was primarily the result of costs associated with our two new financing arrangements, the Bridge Facilities and the SLL Agreement. See “—Credit Facilities.”

Income tax expense

Income tax expense increased by $1.2 million, or 91.7%, to $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Current tax expenses primarily represent income taxes based on income in multiple foreign jurisdictions.

Seasonality

To date, we have not experienced any pronounced seasonality, but such fluctuations may have been masked by our rapid growth.

 

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Quarterly Results of Operations

The following table presents our unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations for the five quarters in the periods presented. In management’s opinion, the data below have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus and reflect all normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of this data. The following unaudited quarterly financial data should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements and our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The results of historical periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full year or any future period.

 

    Three Months Ended    

 

 
    March 31, 2020     June 30, 2020     September 30, 2020     December 31, 2020     March 31, 2021  
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)     % of
revenue
    (in thousands)    

% of
revenue

 

Revenue

  $ 84,244       100   $ 95,309       100   $ 114,682       100   $ 127,116       100   $ 140,052       100

Cost of goods sold

    (56,961     (67.6 )%      (64,498     (67.7 )%      (78,731     (68.7 )%      (91,917     (72.3 )%      (98,118     (70.1 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    27,283       32.4 %      30,811       32.3 %      35,951       31.3 %      35,199       27.7 %      41,934       29.9 % 

Research and development expenses

    (1,179     (1.4 )%      (1,303     (1.4 )%      (1,692     (1.5 )%      (2,657     (2.1 )%      (3,092     (2.2 %) 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    (30,841     (36.6 )%      (33,345     (35.0 )%      (40,591     (35.4 )%      (63,015     (49.6 )%      (66,807     (47.7 %) 

Other operating (expense)/income

    (434     (0.5 )%      (510     (0.5 )%      (1,550     (1.4 )%      780       0.6  

 

(550

 

 

(0.4

)% 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

    (5,171 )      (6.1 )%      (4,347 )      (4.6 )%      (7,882 )      (6.9 )%      (29,693 )      (23.4 )%      (28,515 )      (20.4 )% 

Finance income and expenses, net

    (2,650     (3.1 )%      (23     (0.0 )%      (1,971     (1.7 )%      (6,213     (4.9 )%   

 

(1,920

 

 

(1.4

)% 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before tax

    (7,821 )      (9.3 )%      (4,370 )      (4.6 )%      (9,853 )      (8.6 )%      (35,906 )      (28.2 )%      (30,435 )      (21.7 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax expense

    (352     (0.4 )%      (420     (0.4 )%      (554     (0.5 )%      (1,085     (0.9 )%      (1,948     (1.4 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss for the period, attributable to shareholders of the parent

  $ (8,173     (9.7 )%    $ (4,790     (5.0 )%    $ (10,407     (9.1 )%    $ (36,991     (29.1 )%   

$

(32,383

 

 

(23.1

)% 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Quarterly trends

Our revenue has generally increased in each quarter presented, as we have continued to expand our production capacity. However, we cannot assure you that this pattern or rate of sequential growth in revenue will continue as we increasingly scale our global operations. We anticipate that our gross profit and gross margin may fluctuate from quarter to quarter because of the variability of our production capacity compared to consumer demand and based on geographic and product mix.

During the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020, we experienced a decline in sales to coffee shops and restaurant customers as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which was offset by increased retail demand. In addition, during the fourth quarter of 2020, we relied more heavily on co-manufacturers for production and experienced higher freight costs within the United States and higher container rates for our shipments from EMEA to Asia, all of which negatively impacted our gross margins. See “—Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic.”

Our operating expenses generally have increased sequentially in each quarter primarily due to increases in selling, general and administrative expenses related to branding, advertising and marketing, customer distribution, as well as headcount and related employee expenses to support our global growth. The increase in operating expenses in the fourth quarter of 2020 in particular was primarily related to higher branding related activities, customer distribution costs as a result of higher revenue, public company readiness expenses and a compensation related accrual. We anticipate our operating expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars

 

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in future periods as we invest in the long-term growth of our business. Historical patterns should not be considered a reliable indicator of our future sales activity or performance.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through cash generated by the issuance of equity securities and from borrowings. Our primary requirements for liquidity and capital are to finance working capital, capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes. We are currently in the process of significantly expanding our existing operations at our Landskrona, Sweden and Vlissingen, Netherlands facilities. We recently began production at our facility in Ogden, Utah, and we expect to begin production at a new facility in Singapore in the first half of 2021 and at a facility in Maanshan, China in the second half of 2021. We also recently announced our plans to construct a facility in Peterborough, the United Kingdom, and we are investing in improvements to our existing facilities and manufacturing equipment. We are also in the planning and development stages for two additional facilities, one in the United States and one in Asia, at which we expect to begin production in 2023. We are financing these expansions and improvements through a combination of cash, including the proceeds of our private placement in July 2020, our credit facilities described under “—Credit Facilities” and the leasing arrangements described under “—Contractual Obligations and Commitments.” We expect to continue to use this combination of financing in addition to proceeds from this offering to fund our continued expansion. We expect our net capital expenditures for 2021 to be in the range of $350 million to $400 million, for 2022 to be in the range of $300 million to $400 million and for 2023 to be in the range of $100 million to $200 million. The amount and allocation of our future capital expenditures depend on several factors, and our strategic investment priorities may change. Any delays in our expected increase in production capacity, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could delay future capital expenditures. We believe that our sources of liquidity and capital will be sufficient to meet our existing business needs for at least the next 12 months.

Since November 2016, we have raised approximately $400 million in gross cash proceeds through capital contributions.

Our primary sources of liquidity are our cash and cash equivalents and our credit facilities. As of March 31, 2021 and 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of $88.6 million and $105.4 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of $105.4 million and $10.6 million, respectively. Our cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in bank accounts. In addition to the cash and cash equivalents, we had access to $80.0 million and $7.1 million in undrawn bank facilities as of March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and we had access to $157.9 million and $1.6 million in undrawn bank facilities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Since March 31, 2021, we have drawn an additional $50 million on the SLL Agreement (as defined below).

Credit Facilities

In October 2019, we entered into a European Investment Fund guaranteed three year term loan facility of €7.5 million with Svensk Exportkredit (the “EIF Facility”). The EIF Facility bears interest at EURIBOR + 2.75%. In April 2021, we and Svensk Exportkredit agreed to amend the EIF Facility to rank pari passu with the facility under the SRCF Agreement described below. As of March 31, 2021, December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had €6.1 million, €6.6 million and €7.5 million, respectively, outstanding on the EIF Facility.

In November 2019, we entered into a credit agreement with Israel Discount Bank of New York (as amended in December 2020, the “IDB Facility”) for a total amount of $15 million. The IDB Facility bears interest at rate equal to the greater of: (i) 0.5% above the prime rate most recently announced by the Israel Discount Bank of New York and (ii) 4.00%. The IDB Facility is effective until October 31, 2021 and renews annually thereafter, subject to our termination upon 60 days’ written notice. As of March 31, 2021, December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had $14.4 million, $1.9 million and $5.0 million outstanding on the IDB Facility, respectively.

 

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In March 2020, we entered into a Subordinated Bridge Facilities Agreement with our majority shareholders that provided for three separate term loan facilities: one facility for SEK 145.2 million and two facilities for a total of €65.6 million (as amended, the “Bridge Facilities”). In May 2020, the two euro-denominated facilities were collectively split to be repaid 50% in euros and 50% in U.S. dollars, at an agreed exchange rate of €1 to $1.0959. Any of the Bridge Facilities may be prepaid, in part or in full, subject to three business days prior written notice and prior written consent from the lending shareholders. The Bridge Facilities are subject to a 15% interest rate. As of December 31, 2020, we had $106.1 million outstanding on the Bridge Facilities, including accrued interest. In April 2021, the term of the Bridge Facilities was extended through the earlier of August 2021 or the completion of this offering. Of the $115.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Bridge Facilities outstanding, upon consummation of this offering, $10.9 million, based on an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00, will be repaid in cash, and the remainder will be converted into ordinary shares at a price equal to the public price in this offering, which we expect to be 6,124,004 ordinary shares, based on the initial public offering price of $17.00 per ADS, an exchange rate of SEK 8.3355 to $1.00 and an exchange rate of SEK 10.1822 to €1.00.

In June 2020, we entered into a Sustainability Linked Loan agreement (the “SLL Agreement”) with Nordea Bank Abp, filial i Sverige, Coöperatieve Rabobank U.A., BNP Paribas SA, Bankfilial Sverige and Svensk Exportkredit including a term loan of SEK 725 million and a revolving credit facility of SEK 1.2 billion with an accordion option of another SEK 1 billion, subject to the fulfillment of certain conditions as well as at the lenders’ discretion. The SLL Agreement amended and replaced an earlier term loan we had with Nordea Bank Abp, filial i Sverige amounting to SEK 390 and $17.0 million. Borrowings under the SLL Agreement are repayable at the end of the term and carry an interest rate of the aggregate of the applicable margin and STIBOR, LIBOR or EURIBOR, depending on the denominated currency of amounts loaned. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had $138.3 million and $87.2 million outstanding on the SLL Agreement, respectively. Since March 31, 2021, we have drawn an additional $50 million on the SLL Agreement. We intend to repay all amounts outstanding under the SLL Agreement in connection with this offering, and the SLL Agreement will be replaced by the SRCF Agreement described below.

On April 14, 2021, we entered into a Sustainable Revolving Credit Facility Agreement (the “SRCF Agreement”) with BNP Paribas SA, Bankfilial Sverige, Coöperatieve Rabobank U.A., Nordea Bank ABP, Filial I Sverige and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB (publ) as Bookrunning Mandated Lead Arrangers, Barclays Bank Ireland PLC, J.P. Morgan AG and Morgan Stanley Bank International Limited as Mandated Lead Arrangers and Credit Suisse (Deutschland) Aktiengesellschaft as Lead Arranger and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB (publ) as Agent and Security Agent, including a multicurrency revolving credit facility of SEK 3.6 billion with an accordion option of another SEK 850 million, subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions and at the lenders’ discretion. The SRCF Agreement will replace the SLL Agreement at the closing of this offering. The initial term of the SRCF Agreement is three years from the settlement date of this offering, with an option to extend twice, for one additional year each. Borrowings under the SRCF Agreement are repayable at the end of the interest period to which that loan relates and carry an interest rate of the aggregate of the applicable margin and SONIA, LIBOR (with a rate switch to SOFR), STIBOR or EURIBOR, depending on the denominated currency, amounts loaned and if the denominated currency is a rate switch currency. Under the SRCF Agreement, we are subject to ongoing covenants such as tangible solvency, minimum EBITDA and liquidity requirements and, subject to the exercise of our conversion right relating to such covenants, total net leverage ratio. The covenant conversion right is subject to the provision of notice and no Event of Default (as defined in the SRCF Agreement) continuing at the relevant time, and it may be exercised at our discretion from December 31, 2023, and following such conversion, the existing tangible solvency, minimum EBITDA and liquidity covenants will fall away and be replaced with a total net leverage ratio. The SRCF Agreement also contains limitations on our ability to pay dividends until we exercise our covenant conversion right.

 

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Cash Flows

The following table presents the summary consolidated cash flow information for the periods presented.

 

     Three MonthsEnded
March 31,
    Year Ended December 31,  
     2021     2020     2020     2019  
                 (in thousands)  

Net cash used in operating activities

     $    (29,200     $    718       $    (44,308     $    (39,117

Net cash used in investing activities

     (48,950     (28,666     (141,373     (64,686

Net cash from financing activities

     62,402       73,666       273,907       95,541  

Net cash used in operating activities

Net cash used in operating activities increased by $29.9 million to $(29.2) million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was primarily driven by a loss from operations as we continue to invest and scale our business to support our growth.

Net cash used in operating activities increased by $5.2 million, or 13.3%, to $44.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $39.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was primarily driven by a loss from operations as we continue to invest and scale our business to support our growth.

Net cash used in investing activities

Net cash used in investing activities increased by $20.3 million, or 70.8%, to $49.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $28.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, which was primarily driven by investments in production capacity to meet the growing demand for our products.

Net cash used in investing activities increased by $76.7 million, or 118.6%, to $141.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $64.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was primarily driven by our investment in our new production facility in Ogden, Utah.

Net cash from financing activities

Net cash from financing activities decreased by $11.3 million, or 15.3%, to $62.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $73.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. We continue to finance our capacity expansion and operations using our existing credit facilities.

Net cash from financing activities increased by $178.4 million, or 186.7%, to $273.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $95.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily as a result of our financing transactions during 2020. We received proceeds of $200 million from a private placement of our equity securities, we entered into the Bridge Facilities that provided $87.8 million, and we entered into the SLL Agreement, replacing an earlier term loan we had with Nordea Bank, resulting in a limited net positive cash flow impact for 2020. See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

We have entered into contracts in the normal course of business with suppliers, primarily for production and packaging services. These contracts contain minimum purchase commitments. The commitments are associated with contracts that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used and fixed, minimum or variable price provisions. Historically, our annual purchase volumes have exceeded the minimum purchase commitments, and we expect the volumes to continue to exceed the minimum purchase commitments going forward.

In addition, we have entered into lease agreements for our offices, production facilities and production equipment. Lease terms for properties are generally between one and ten years, except for our Ogden, Utah

 

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production facility, where extension options of 30 years have been included resulting in a total lease period of 40 years. Lease terms for production equipment are generally between one and five years. The majority of extension and termination options held are exercisable only by us and not by the respective lessor. We have one related lease agreement regarding production equipment in the United States under which our obligations collectively amount to $7.8 million for a term of seven years, and the commencement date is expected to be in 2021. We have one lease agreement regarding our production facility in Singapore under which our obligations amount to $3.1 million for a term of ten years, and the commencement date is expected to be in 2021. We also have two lease agreements regarding production equipment in Maanshan, China under which the our obligations collectively amount to $15.6 million for a term of six years, and the commencement dates are expected to be in 2021. For our Ogden facility, we modified the lease agreement regarding the addition of two buildings and amended the original lease term. The two additional buildings have commencement dates of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2022. The lease term, if all extension options are exercised, will be extended from December 31, 2028 to December 31, 2061, and our obligations amount to approximately $74.0 million for the fully extended lease term.

For additional information regarding our contractual commitments and contingencies, see Note 32 to our consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Segment Information

Our operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker, who is our CEO. Our operating segments and reportable segments are EMEA, Asia and Americas. The CEO primarily uses a measure of earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) to assess the performance of the operating segments.

 

     Three Months Ended March 31, 2021  
     EMEA      Americas     Asia      Corporate*     Eliminations**     Total  
     (in thousands)  

Revenue

              

Revenue from external customers

     81,647        33,528       24,877                    140,052  

Intersegment revenue

     12,901        37                    (12,938      

Total segment revenue

     94,548        33,566       24,877              (12,938     140,052  

EBITDA

     8,498        (15,593     1,615        (19,213           (24,693

 

     Three Months Ended March 31, 2020  
     EMEA      Americas     Asia     Corporate*     Eliminations**     Total  
     (in thousands)  

Revenue

             

Revenue from external customers

     59,119        20,291       4,834                   84,244  

Intersegment revenue

     3,224                          (3,224      

Total segment revenue

     62,343        20,291       4,834             (3,224     84,244  

EBITDA

     9,487        (4,285     (387     (7,135           (2,320

 

     Year Ended December 31, 2020  
     EMEA      Americas     Asia     Corporate*     Eliminations**     Total  
     (in thousands)  

Revenue

             

Revenue from external customers

     267,691        99,997       53,663                   421,351  

Intersegment revenue

     35,208        230                   (35,438      

Total segment revenue

     302,899        100,227       53,663             (35,438     421,351  

EBITDA

     39,456        (25,117     (2,141     (46,173           (33,975

 

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     Year Ended December 31, 2019  
     EMEA      Americas     Asia     Corporate*     Eliminations**     Total  
     (in thousands)  

Revenue

             

Revenue from external customers

     154,746        39,120       10,182                   204,047  

Intersegment revenue

     6,222                          (6,222     0  

Total segment revenue

     160,967        39,120       10,182             (6,222     204,047  

EBITDA

     16,594        (13,663     (5,211     (20,386           (22,665

 

*

Corporate consists of general overhead costs not allocated to the segments.

**

Eliminations in 2020 refer to intersegment revenue for sales of products from EMEA to Asia and from Americas to both EMEA and Asia. Eliminations in 2019 refer to intersegment revenue for sales of products from EMEA to Asia.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We did not have during the period presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet financing arrangements or any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, including entities sometimes referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, that were established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

We have provided a summary of our significant accounting policies, estimates and judgments in Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following critical accounting discussion pertains to accounting policies management believes are most critical to the portrayal of our historical financial condition and results of operations and that require significant, difficult, subjective or complex judgments. Other companies in similar businesses may use different estimation policies and methodologies, which may impact the comparability of our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows to those of other companies.

Revenue recognition—variable consideration for discounts and trade promotion

If the consideration in a contract includes a variable amount, we estimate the consideration to which we will be entitled in exchange for transferring goods to the customer. Our expected discounts and payments for trade promotion activities are analyzed on a per customer basis. We estimate the consideration using either the expected value method or the most likely amount method, depending on which method better predicts the amount of consideration to which we will be entitled. The most likely amount method is used for contracts with a single contract sum, while the expected value method is used for contracts with more than one threshold due to the complexity and the activities agreed with the individual customer.

Management makes judgments when deciding whether trade promotion activities with a customer should be classified as a reduction to revenue or as a marketing expense. Generally, activities with the individual customer are accounted for as a reduction to revenue whereas costs related to broader marketing activities are classified as marketing expenses.

Valuation of loss carry-forwards

A deferred tax asset is only recognized for loss carry-forwards for which it is probable that they can be utilized against future tax surpluses and against taxable temporary differences. The majority of the loss carry-forwards are as at December 31, 2020 and 2019 not recognized as these are not expected to be utilized in the foreseeable future. See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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Leases—Determining the lease term of contracts with renewal and termination options—Group as lessee

In determining the lease term, management considers all facts and circumstances that create an economic incentive to exercise an extension option or not exercise a termination option. Extension options (or periods after termination options) are only included in the lease term if the lease is reasonably certain to be extended (or not terminated).

The majority of the extension options in properties and production equipment have not been included in the lease liability, primarily due to the fact that we could replace the assets without significant cost or business disruption.     However, for one production plant in the United States, an extension option of ten years has been included in the lease term since we have made larger investments in the plant.

The lease term is reassessed when it is decided that an option will be exercised (or not exercised) or we become obliged to exercise (or not exercise) it. The assessment of reasonable certainty is only revised if a significant event or a significant change in circumstances occurs, which affects this assessment, and that is within the control of the lessee. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Leases—Estimating the incremental borrowing rate

We cannot readily determine the interest rate implicit in the lease, therefore, it uses its incremental borrowing rate (“IBR”) to measure lease liabilities. The IBR is the rate of interest that we would have to pay to borrow over a similar term, and with a similar security, the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar value to the right-of-use asset in a similar economic environment. The IBR therefore reflects what we ‘would have to pay,’ which requires estimation when no observable rates are available (such as for subsidiaries that do not enter into financing transactions). We estimate the IBR using observable inputs (such as market interest rates) when available and is required to make certain entity-specific estimates (such as the subsidiary’s stand-alone credit rating).

Embedded leases

We have supplier contracts that have been reviewed in order to assess if the agreements contain embedded leases. There is judgment involved in assessing if an arrangement contains an embedded lease. The general rule is that an arrangement contains a lease if (1) there is an explicit or implicit identified asset in the contract, and (2) the customer controls use of the identified asset. We have concluded that these agreements do not contain any embedded leases since we do not have the right to direct how and for what purpose the assets are used throughout the period of use.

Test of impairment of goodwill

We perform tests annually, and if there are any indications of impairment to determine whether there is a need for impairment of goodwill, in accordance with the accounting principle presented in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. At present, we only have goodwill allocated to our EMEA operating segment. Recoverable amount for cash generating units are established through the calculation of the value in use. The calculation of the value in use is based on estimated future cash flows before tax. We have estimated that EBITDA, the discount rate and the long-term growth rate are the most significant assumptions in the impairment test. See Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Share-based payments

We measure the cost of equity-settled transactions with employees by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments at the date at which they are granted. The fair value is estimated using a model that requires the determination of the appropriate inputs. The assumptions and models used for estimating the fair value of share-based payment transactions including sensitivity analysis are disclosed in Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Certain new accounting standards and interpretations have been issued by the IASB, but are not yet effective for the December 31, 2020 reporting period and have not been early adopted by the Group. These standards are not expected to have a material impact on the entity in the current or future reporting periods nor on foreseeable future transactions.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to certain market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily consist of foreign exchange risk, interest rate risk, credit risk and liquidity risk as follows. For further discussion and sensitivity analysis of these risks, see Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Foreign exchange risk

Foreign exchange risk arises from future commercial transactions and recognized assets and liabilities denominated in a currency that is not the functional currency of the relevant group entity. We are primarily exposed to currency risk in group companies with SEK as the functional currency. The primary risks in these companies are USD/SEK, GBP/SEK and EUR/SEK due to sales (trade receivables), purchases (trade payables) and borrowings. We monitor a forecast of highly probable cash flows for each currency and aim to achieve a natural match of inflows and outflows. For those currencies that have a net cash flow that is positive, derivatives are used to manage the risk for up to 75% of the exposure for the following 12 months. We do not apply hedge accounting. During 2019, we used forward contracts and currency swaps to manage the risk of primarily intercompany sales in GBP in group companies with functional currency SEK. As at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had currency derivatives of £16 million for which the fair value was $(1.0) million and £20 million for which the fair value was $0.8 million, respectively.

We are also exposed to currency risk when foreign subsidiaries with a functional currency other than USD are consolidated, primarily for EUR, SEK and GBP. Our policy is not to hedge the translation exposure related to net foreign assets to reduce translation risk in the consolidated financial statements.

Interest rate risk

Our main interest rate risk arises from long-term liabilities to credit institutions with variable rates (primarily the Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate “Stibor” 3 Months and Euro Interbank Offered Rate “Euribor” 3 Months), which expose us to cash flow interest rate risk. As at March 31, 2021, the nominal amount of liabilities to credit institutions with variable interest rate were $145.2 million, of which $5.1 million were swapped using floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps for the risk in Stibor 3 Months. As at December 31, 2020, the nominal amount of liabilities to credit institutions with variable interest rate were $97.6 million, of which $5.7 million were swapped using floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps for the risk in Stibor 3 Months, and as at December 31, 2019, the nominal amount of liabilities to credit institutions with variable interest rate were $72.1 million, of which $5.9 million were swapped using floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps for the risk in Stibor 3 Months.

Credit risk

Credit risk arises primarily from cash and cash equivalents and debt instruments carried at amortized cost. We manage financial counterparty credit risk on a group basis. The external financial counterparties must be high-quality international banks or other major participants in the financial markets, in each case, with a minimum investment grade rating BBB- / Baa3. The rating of the financial counterparties used during 2020 and 2019 were in the range from BBB- to AA+.

 

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Customer and supplier credit risk is mitigated through credit risk assessment, credit limit setting in case of payment obligations overdue and through the contractual terms. There are no significant concentrations of credit risk in regards of exposure to specific industry sectors and/or regions. For the year ended December 31, 2020, no customer accounted for 10% or more of revenue, and for the year ended December 31, 2019, one customer accounted for approximately 10% of our revenue, giving rise to some credit risk concentration. We have not historically had any incurred losses from this customer.

Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is our risk of not being able to meet the short-term payment obligations due to insufficient funds. As at March 31, 2021, December 31, 2020 and 2019, we held cash and cash equivalents of $88.6 million, $105.4 million and $10.6 million, respectively, that were available for managing liquidity risk. Due to the dynamic nature of the underlying businesses, we maintain flexibility in funding by maintaining availability under committed credit lines.

Management monitors rolling forecasts of our liquidity reserve (comprising the undrawn borrowing facilities above) and cash and cash equivalents on the basis of expected cash flows. This is monitored at group level with input from local management. In addition, our liquidity management policy involves projecting cash flows in major currencies and considering the level of liquid assets necessary to meet these, monitoring balance sheet liquidity ratios against internal and external regulatory requirements and maintaining debt financing plans.

Internal Control over Financial Reporting

In the course of auditing our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in our internal control environment driven by (i) our technology access related environment and change control processes not supporting an efficient or effective internal control framework, (ii) lack of documented policies and procedures in relation to our business processes and entity level controls as well as lack of evidence of performing controls and (iii) inadequate segregation of duties.

To remedy our identified material weaknesses, we are in the process of adopting several measures intended to improve our internal control over financial reporting, including: (i) implementing formal access and change controls, and making changes to our information technology systems such as implementing new systems and improving the control environment including the reduction of manual tasks; (ii) establishing comprehensive accounting guidelines in relation to our accounting policies, clarifying reporting requirements for, non-recurring and complex transactions, implementing a procedures manual and providing internal training to accounting and finance personnel in relation to policies and procedures, hiring additional accounting and finance personnel, and improving the month-end close process and establishing more robust and formalized processes supporting internal control over financial reporting; and (iii) securing adequate segregation of duties.

JOBS Act

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. We intend to rely on certain reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company, we are not required to, among other things, (i) provide an auditor’s attestation report on our system of internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which would otherwise be required beginning with our second annual report on Form 20-F, and (ii) comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (auditor discussion and analysis).

 

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LETTER FROM OUR CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, TONI PETERSSON

 

Oatly is a company built on the idea of change.

We started over 25 years ago with the idea to make a better milk – one that was adapted for human nutritional needs and sustainable for the planet on which we live. At the time, there wasn’t a market for oatmilk. People didn’t know anything about Oatly, what products we made and what we were trying to do. What has become clear over time is that our company’s core values and competencies are built for what the world is becoming, not what it has been. We stand for things that consumers care about today – sustainability, health and trust – and have done so for decades. As humanity faces massive challenges of climate change, lifestyle disease and personal connection, our mission is even more relevant and powerful.

We set out to shake the foundations of a broken food system not only with what we say, but what we do. We list all the ingredients that go into our products and where they come from so people know exactly what they are putting into their bodies. We work with dairy farmers in Sweden and the United States to explore the sustainability and economic benefits of a shift to oat crops. We were the first company in Europe to use a fleet of electric trucks for heavy-duty commercial shipping. We added carbon footprint labeling to all of our products in Europe so consumers could easily grow aware of the impact for their food on the planet, and we challenged the food industry to do the same. Our commercial work – such as exclusive, branded partnerships with Starbucks in the United States and China – helps some of the food industry’s biggest players embrace the plant-based movement.

The mission is in our products themselves: every carton of dairy milk that we convert to oatmilk saves roughly 80% in greenhouse gas emissions. Our example shows that companies must not only do sustainability; they must be sustainable.

To this day, that purpose drives our growth. Knowing that each liter we sell is a step towards a better world transforms day-to-day business into something extraordinary. It demands that we see a much larger market than plant-based products have before. Our aim is to disrupt one of the world’s largest industries – dairy – and in the process lead a new way forward for the food system. This seismic change in the market has already begun. There is no going back.

Our holistic approach is not the traditional way of building a food company. We bring together scientific research, unparalleled product innovation, proven production expertise, a renowned in-house creative team and commercial excellence to create a global business that is greater than the sum of its parts. A genuine, clear mission lets us focus on executing in a world-class manner – and a culture that puts people first and encourages bold action empowers us to do so every day.

The speed and breadth of Oatly’s success on a global scale makes me believe that our approach can make unprecedented things happen. We created the oatmilk phenomenon from scratch across Europe, China and the United States, and our brand is the primary driver of growth for dairy alternatives. Our products and brand have proven success across three continents and multiple channels. The momentum for this movement grows every day, as does my confidence in how Oatly is leading it forward.

As we continue on this growth journey, we need to remember that speed and scale are exactly what our mission requires. Surely it would be more comfortable to take it easy and to do things the way they’ve always been done, but it’s simply not why we come to work every day.

Ultimately, we all answer to our children and the future generations who will inherit this world we are building. I’m guided to do things so that I can face my family and employees knowing I made the right decisions to enable a healthier planet, where humanity can grow and change for the better. Doing this requires placing conviction above convenience. As a business leader, that is my duty. We are proud to build a business that has this as its reason for existence and to have the investing public help us make it happen.

 

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BUSINESS

Our Purpose

We have a bold vision for a food system that’s better for people and the planet.

We believe that transforming the food industry is necessary to face humanity’s greatest challenges across climate, environment, health and lifestyle. In parallel, change is rocking the consumer landscape, as the growing concerns for the environment and interest in health and nutrition have started to drive real, scaled behavioral changes around consumer purchase choices. Generation Z and Millennials will become the dominant global generations in the coming years, bringing to the market a new set of values and expectations. These combined factors are driving a clear rapid, accelerating growth and influx of new consumers to the plant-based dairy market.

In this context, Oatly has become a leading, innovative force with a clear point of view on things that we believe consumers really care about—sustainability and health. We are a solution that enables people make thoughtful, informed choices in line with these values.

We believe our company is leading the transformation of the global dairy market—which is worth approximately $600 billion in the retail channel alone as of 2020. Behind our products are decades of scientific heritage, deep expertise around oats, production craftsmanship and commercially proven innovation in matters of sustainability and human health. Our brand rightfully stands out on a competitive dairy shelf, bringing a unique voice to the industry. Purpose drives our organization forward.

About Oatly

We are the world’s original and largest oatmilk company. For over 25 years, we have exclusively focused on developing expertise around oats: a global power crop with inherent properties suited for sustainability and human health. Our commitment to oats has resulted in core technical advancements that enabled us to unlock the breadth of the dairy portfolio, including milks, ice cream, yogurt, cooking creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks.

 

Traditional food production is one of the biggest drivers of environmental impact. Food production uses about half of all habitable land on earth, requires large amounts of resources, emits greenhouse gases and harms biodiversity. At the same time, today’s food system—and often our eating habits—does not meet our nutritional needs, driving the prevalence of non-communicable diseases like malnutrition, obesity and heart and vascular diseases. Through our products and actions as a company, we work to grow the plant-based movement and help people shift from traditional dairy to plant-based products and enact positive societal and industry change.

 

 

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Sustainability is at the core of our business and actionable in our products: on average, a liter of Oatly product consumed in place of cow’s milk results in around 80% less greenhouse gas emissions, 79% less land usage and 60% less energy consumption. This equation is our primary mechanism for impact. Our products make it easy for people to turn what they eat and drink into personal moments of healthy joy without excessively taxing the planet’s resources in the process. Beyond the inherent properties of our products, we execute a sustainability agenda across our value chain that encompasses agriculture, innovation, production, advertising and more. Sustainability at Oatly is far more than achieving certain key performance indicators and corporate policies—it is a mindset that helps us navigate business decisions and build a culture that is singularly focused on pushing the boundaries of the plant-based movement.

 

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In the historically commoditized dairy category, we have created a brand phenomenon that speaks to emerging consumer priorities of sustainability, trust and health. Our integrated in-house team of creative, communications and customer relations experts reach consumers in a way that is honest and human. Across many kinds of media, we create thought-provoking, conversation-sparking content to engage people around our mission and drive awareness for the brand. Our company values are communicated not only in the things we say, but also in the things we do—like putting carbon impact labels on our packaging and launching public campaigns to inspire policy change. The voice, actions, products and values represented by the Oatly brand drive our commercial success and mission.

Our innovation practices are foundational to delivering market-leading products. Oatly was founded in the 1990s by food scientists on a mission to make the best possible form of milk for human beings and the planet. Rather than modifying cow’s milk itself or mimicking its nutritional profile in a new product, we sought powerful plant-based ingredients—in particular, the strong nutritional and sustainability elements of oats. Today, we remain steadfast in our goal of creating excellent products across the full dairy portfolio, from milk, to yogurts, to ice cream. To do so, we leverage proprietary production processes and key patented elements, including enzymatic processes, to convert fiber-rich oats into great tasting products. A deep understanding of oats as a raw material and product ingredient allows us to deliver on a holistic set of product dimensions like taste, nutritional composition and sustainability profile. We believe our recent product launches in categories such as yogurt and frozen desserts shows the strength of our results-oriented innovation practices and the potential to drive a significant volume shift to plant-based dairy across the full breadth of the dairy portfolio.

Driving the global appetite for plant-based dairy

We have proven global resonance with commercial success in more than 20 markets, across multiple channels and types of retail, foodservice and e-commerce partners. As of December 31, 2020, we offered dozens of product lines and varieties across approximately 60,000 retail doors and 32,200 coffee shops. Our products are sold through a variety of channels, from independent coffee shops to continent-wide partnerships with established franchises like Starbucks, from food retailers like Target and Tesco to premium natural grocers and corner stores, as well as through e-commerce channels, such as Alibaba’s Tmall. To enter new markets, we use a foodservice-led expansion strategy that builds awareness and loyalty for our brand through the specialty coffee market and ultimately drives increased sales through retail channels. We have tailored this strategy in many successful international market launches, including the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States and China.

Our growth in China demonstrates the effectiveness of this expansion strategy. We successfully entered the Chinese market in 2018 through the specialty coffee and tea channel, which we have since scaled to over 8,000 doors at the end of 2020. As a result of the consumer excitement we built around the Oatly brand with this launch, we were able to rapidly scale our regional presence through a strategic e-commerce partnership with Alibaba and an exclusive branded partnership with Starbucks in China, with over 4,700 locations in China exclusive to us as of December 31, 2020. Within approximately two years of entering the Chinese market, we had over 9,500 foodservice and retail points of sale in total with a growth rate of over 450% as of December 31, 2020. We have built a new generation of plant-based milk consumers by converting traditional dairy milk drinkers to Oatly and by attracting new drinkers to the category altogether. The awareness and in-context trial achieved in the specialty coffee and tea channel was critical to educate the market about plant-based dairy and establish our leadership in the region.

Our brand has excelled on a global scale, as evidenced by the following market statistics:

 

   

In 2020, Oatly contributed the highest amount of sales growth to the dairy alternatives drinks category across each of our key markets - the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden.

 

   

In our home market of Sweden, we had a 53% market share of the total sales in the alternative dairy products non-milk based category as of 2020, according to Nielsen.

 

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In the United States, the United Kingdom Germany and Sweden, we are the highest selling brand in the oat category by retail sales value, which is the largest category within dairy alternatives in the United Kingdom and Germany and is the fastest-growing category within the United States.

 

   

Our 2020 year-over-year retail sales growth rates were 99% in the United Kingdom, according to IRI Infoscan, 199% in Germany and 182% in the United States, according to Nielsen. Our growth led the increase in demand for oat-based products. Since 2018, when we launched our new retail strategy in Germany, oatmilk’s market share of sales in the retail plant-based dairy category has grown from approximately 23% for the rolling four week period ended January 2018 to approximately 60% for the rolling four week period ended December 2020, according to Nielsen.

We also believe that global demand for Oatly products has far outpaced our supply. As we continue to scale, we have a significant opportunity to satisfy unmet demand and leverage our brand success to expand our product portfolio.

We believe we are only at the beginning of the transformation of the overall global dairy market, which totals approximately $600 billion in retail value as of 2020, with a large foodservice footprint and burgeoning e-commerce opportunity. In order to support a societal shift towards plant-based diets, we understand that it is critical to invest in manufacturing capabilities to support our growth. As we grow, we believe owning and controlling our global operating footprint is paramount to addressing the significant consumer demand we have faced, since this enables us to apply our own standards of quality, sustainability and flexibility for innovation, while achieving more attractive production economics, as demonstrated by our fully owned manufacturing capabilities in Sweden. Globally, as of March 2021, we had four Oatly factories online and three factories planned or under construction. We supplement our owned factories with a diversified network of deeply vetted third-party co-manufacturing partners that help us drive growth by providing the necessary speed and flexibility and improve our ability to meet consumer demand, commence pilot projects and support our new product launches.

Our historical financial performance reflects the scaled and global growth profile of our company. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we reported revenue of $140.1 million, a 66.2% increase from $84.2 million in the same period in 2020. In 2020, we reported revenue of $421.4 million, a 106.5% increase from $204.0 million in 2019. This growth outpaces our year-over-year growth in 2019 of 72.9%, representing our accelerating momentum. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we generated gross profit of $41.9 million, representing a margin of 29.9% and a loss for the period of $32.4 million. In 2020, we generated gross profit of $129.2 million representing a margin of 30.7% and, as a result of our continued focus on our growth, a loss for the year of $60.4 million, reflecting our continued investment in production, brand awareness, new markets and product development. Going forward, we intend to continue to invest in our innovation capabilities, build our manufacturing footprint and expand our consumer base, all supporting our growth trajectory.

 

Revenue ($MM)(1)    Gross Profit ($MM)(1)

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2020 Sales By Region    2020 Sales Split By Channel
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(1)

Revenue and gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2018 are management’s estimates that were derived from our audited Swedish consolidated annual report in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in Sweden. The amounts presented were converted to U.S. dollars and adjusted for comparability with IFRS, and these adjustments have not been audited or reviewed. The estimates may differ from the amounts that would have been presented if our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 had been prepared in accordance with IFRS. Revenue and gross profit for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 were prepared in accordance with IFRS and have been audited. See our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

(2)

Foodservice includes coffee and tea shops.

(3)

Other includes e-commerce.

Our History

Our history begins in the 1990s in Sweden, where a group of scientists at Lund University were exploring the mechanisms and effects of lactose intolerance. Research had made clear that an estimated two-thirds of the global population cannot process cow’s milk due to lactose intolerance, according to Lancet. On the belief that a better milk, a milk fit for human nutrition, was possible, these scientists set out to make an alternative that could replace the traditional cow’s product without sacrificing the dairy experience. They found the solution in the base crop of oats, which are globally plentiful, familiar across cuisines, cost effective and require low-input resources relative to livestock and other plant crops, contain healthy fibers, and they developed a proprietary, patented process centered on using enzymes to break down oats into nutritious, tasty products, while retaining key fibers, leading to the launch of the world’s first oat milk in 1995. This core oat technology, as further developed and refined, continues to be the base for the majority of our products today, and we continually work to ensure our leading position in oat innovation.

We launched the first oatmilk product under the Oatly brand in 2001. We continued to develop our portfolio of products over subsequent years, including frozen dessert and cooking cream. In 2006, we set up the first Oatly factory in Landskrona, Sweden. During this time, we grew the business steadily to revenue of $29 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, as prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in Sweden and translated to U.S. dollars at a rate of SEK 1 to $0.1477.

In 2012, almost 20 years after we developed our core oat technology, we appointed a new management team with a bold vision for Oatly. Chief Executive Officer Toni Petersson brought an outsider’s view to the food industry and a fresh take on the company’s mission, building from Oatly’s deep heritage of oat-based food science. They set out to build a new type of food company with core values of health and sustainability, supported by an unconventional approach to brand, commercial strategy and organizational structure.

In our home market of Sweden, Oatly products had a 53% market share of sales in the total alternative dairy products non-milk based category as of 2020, according to Nielsen. The success achieved in our home market, in terms of brand awareness and new product development, has become a clear “north star” for future international expansion. After activating the company-wide rebrand between 2013 and 2014 in the Nordics, we re-launched in the United Kingdom in 2016 through specialty cafes and coffee shops and launched a new retail strategy in Germany in 2018. In both markets, Oatly quickly drove the oat category from obscurity to surpass sales of all other plant-based milks, including almond and soy, within three years.

 

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We continued our global expansion by entering the United States in 2017. We launched Oatly with a novel approach to the market, focused on targeting coffee’s tastemakers, professional baristas at independent coffee shops. As of December 31, 2020, within four years of entering the United States, Oatly products can be found in approximately more than 7,500 retail shops and approximately 10,000 coffee shops in the United States, and revenue from the United States was $100.0 million in 2020.

In 2018, we entered China, focusing again on penetrating specialty coffee and tea shops and quickly generating a powerful brand resonance with consumers. We have since used premier foodservice partnerships to rapidly expand across the broader Asian region and facilitate market education for consuming plant-based milks as alternatives to dairy products, particularly with coffee and tea. In Asia, as of December 31, 2020, we had a presence in approximately 11,000 coffee and tea shops and approximately more than 6,000 retail and specialty shops, including an exclusive, branded partnership with Starbucks China in over 4,700 stores.

Demand for Oatly products has grown at an incredible rate. To date, production capacity has been a major constraint on our growth, and we have made substantial investments to scale our production capacity and address supply shortages. In 2019, we opened one production facility in the United States and one in the Netherlands. In March 2021, we opened our second U.S. facility. Three additional facilities in Singapore, Maanshan, China and Peterborough, the United Kingdom are currently under construction or in the planning stages, and we continue to expand capacity of our existing facilities.

Today, the Oatly movement continues with a growing part of the population realizing their consumption decisions can truly make a difference. We established Oatly as an organization dedicated to improving the lives of individuals and the well-being of the planet through the push for a more sustainable food system. To address the global challenges we are all facing, delicious, healthy and sustainable plant-based food and drink must become a matter of course for everyone.

Our Industry and Opportunity

The global food industry generates about 25% of the world’s total human-created climate impact. In comparison, that is significantly more than the estimated 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions generated by all global transportation combined. Animal-based products account for more than half of global food-related emissions and three-quarters of the land used for food production; however, they yield less than 20% of our globally consumed calories.

Plant-based dairy is a key solution to address global climate change and resource challenges driven by livestock-dependent industries, namely the dairy industry. At Oatly, we are committed to make it easy for people to switch from dairy to plant-based alternatives with the goal to significantly reduce the negative environmental impact.

We participate in the large global dairy industry, which consists of milk, ice cream and frozen dessert, yogurt, cream, cheese and other dairy products. According to Euromonitor, the global dairy industry retail sales were estimated to be $592 billion in 2020 and are expected to reach $789 billion in 2025, growing at a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of 5.9%. In line with retail, foodservice also represents a significant opportunity for us, which we believe expands the total addressable market even further.

Today, we primarily operate in the global milk category, which is the largest subcategory within dairy. According to Euromonitor, the global milk industry retail sales were estimated to be $179 billion in 2020, representing approximately 30% of the global dairy industry in 2020. The category is expected to reach $247 billion in 2025, growing at a CAGR of 6.6%. In some developed markets, dairy milk consumption per capita has been steadily declining, with the trend continuing in the last decade as plant-based dairy has increased in popularity. In the United States, in the last three years, 32% of consumers have reduced or stopped their dairy milk intake, while two thirds of these consumers have now shifted at least part of their dairy consumption to plant-based milk alternatives and are using these products for similar occasions as they would for animal-based dairy milk, according to Consumer Insights. We expect this trend to further accelerate in coming years, as the

 

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growing offering of plant-based dairy across the entire dairy portfolio affects other product categories as well, including ice cream, yogurt, cooking creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks.

Health, nutrition and sustainability are increasingly becoming central to what consumers value and are at the top of people’s and brands’ minds. Based on Consumer Insights, we found that 35% to 40% of the adult population have purchased plant-based milk in the last three months in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, China and Sweden, with 60% to 70% of the category’s consumers joining in the last two years alone, showing that plant-based dairy is quickly becoming mainstream and that the value proposition of these products increasingly appeals to the everyday consumer. We believe these are early signals of a movement of profound change for the large dairy market. Consumer Insights suggests that plant-based milk will continue to grow between 20% to 25% over the next three years, driven by new consumers entering the category, as well as increasing per liter consumption of existing consumers.

The global plant-based dairy industry retail sales were estimated to be $18 billion in 2020 according to Euromonitor, representing approximately 3% of the global dairy industry (excluding soy drinks in China). Within the global dairy industry, plant-based milk represented approximately 9% of the global dairy milk category (excluding soy drinks in China) in 2020. As of 2020, alternatives in other dairy categories have a penetration of less than 1%, highlighting the opportunity ahead across the broader plant-based dairy sector.

Across various plant-based dairy products, oat-based alternatives have outperformed the broader dairy category in recent years. According to Nielsen, sales of oatmilk products in the United States grew by 203% year over year from 2019 to 2020. In the United States, oatmilk products reached $267 million retail sales during 2020, making it the second largest dairy alternative after almond milk. In the United Kingdom, oatmilk reached $181 million retail sales in 2020 and is the largest dairy alternative drink, representing growth year over year of 98% of the United Kingdom in 2020, according to IRI Infoscan. Since 2018, when we launched our new retail strategy in Germany, oatmilk’s market share of sales in the retail plant-based dairy category has grown from approximately 23% for the rolling four week period ended January 2018 to approximately 60% for the rolling four week period ended January 3, 2021, according to Nielsen. In Sweden, oatmilk is the largest category in the total plant-based milk retail market, with a 72% market share for the rolling four week period ended January 3, 2021, which is predominantly driven by Oatly’s clear leadership, according to Nielsen.

 

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Source:

Nielsen, IRI.

 

Notes:

Sweden Nielsen data as of week 52, 2020, U.K. IRI data as of January 2, 2021, Germany Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020 and U.S. Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020.

(1)

Market shares represent rolling four weeks periods.

(2)

Year over year growth of 52-week periods.

 

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We believe plant-based dairy, especially oat-based dairy, will continue to experience significant growth driven by multiple secular tailwinds:

 

   

Sustainability and health as leading factors driving behavioral change and consumer choice. Consumers are increasingly aware of the environmental and health benefits of plant-based dairy, and consumer behavior is changing at scale. Compared to animal-based dairy products, plant-based dairy products have a lower environmental impact including lower greenhouse gas emissions, land and water usage. Based on Consumer Insights, the plant-based category is benefiting from consumers’ seismic shift toward more conscious eating, with approximately 60% of consumers in the United States citing that they lead a much healthier lifestyle and eat significantly healthier, while 43% mentioned they are eating more sustainable products than three years ago. Nutritional benefits of a plant-based diet include dietary fibers (specific to oatmilk), healthy fats and eliminating dietary concerns relating to dairy. These combined nutritional and environmental benefits make plant-based alternatives an appealing choice for consumers and highlight the significant underlying global demand for plant-based dairy.

 

   

Current generations increasingly seek out brands that connect with their core values. Millennials and Generation Z make up the largest consumer group, together consisting of approximately 4.9 billion people worldwide as of the end of 2019, according to Bloomberg. These generations possess a strong understanding of health and environmental issues, and they demonstrate their focus on these issues through their on-shelf purchase decisions. According to a report published by Nielsen in January 2015, 41% of Generation Z and 32% of Millennial consumers are willing to pay a premium for healthier foods. In addition, the Zeno Study found that consumers are four to six times more likely to purchase, protect and champion purpose-driven companies, as they are looking for companies to advance progress on important issues within and outside of their operational footprint. The same study also found that consumers across generations and geographies recognized the strength and importance of purpose and indicated they would hold brands accountable. However, younger generations are leading this effort, with 92% of Generation Z and 90% of Millennials said they would act in support of a purposeful brand, according to the Zeno Study.

 

   

Growing consumer demand for oat-based dairy. Retail sales data shows that Oatly is the driving force behind the increasing consumer demand for oat-based dairy products. We believe that oats are a crop uniquely positioned to achieve the goal of a better dairy portfolio, including:

 

   

Inherent sustainable characteristics: Oats are a low-input crop, which use fewer resources in the agricultural stage of production and offer the possibility for crop rotation, which has a positive impact on the soil.

 

   

Flexible within the supply chain: Oats provide a longer raw ingredient shelf life compared to dairy, while also offering a competitive price structure compared to other plant-based dairy products. The oat crop is very accessible and can be farmed all around the world, which allows us to invest in local production sites and reduce our overall supply chain costs.

 

   

Widely accessible to a range of eaters: Oats do not contain some common allergens present in other plant and nut-based products; it has a neutral taste profile, making it attractive for a wide variety of plant-based dairy use cases.

 

   

Nutritional advantages: Oats have a balanced macro-nutritional profile, which contains a high amount of dietary fiber (including beta-glucan fibers), key fatty acids and limited saturated fats.

 

   

Cultural advantages: Oats can be consumed by all cultures and are common across global cuisines.

Today, we operate in three regions: EMEA, the Americas and Asia.

 

   

EMEA. According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the plant-based dairy industry in EMEA was estimated to be $4 billion in 2020, representing 1.5% of the dairy industry, and is expected to reach

 

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$6 billion by 2025, with penetration expected to increase to 1.8%. We have a significant presence in Europe, with operations in over 15 markets, and are the leading oatmilk brand by market share in every key market in which we operate. We are the highest selling oatmilk brand in the oat category by retail sales value in Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom in grocery in the dairy alternative non-milk based category for 2020, according to Nielsen and IRI Infoscan.

 

   

Americas. According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the plant-based dairy industry in the Americas was estimated to be $5 billion in 2020, representing 2.8% of the dairy industry, and is expected to reach $7 billion by 2025, with penetration expected to increase to 3.7%. However, when looking at the non-dairy milk category, penetration is significantly higher at approximately 9% and is expected to increase to 11% by 2025, demonstrating how plant-based dairy products have become widely accepted in the region. We entered the United States in 2017 and achieved significant success across both foodservice and retail channels, despite having relatively low distribution driven by supply constraints, quickly becoming the highest selling oatmilk brand by retail sales value in grocery in the dairy alternative non-milk based category in the United States in 2020, according to Nielsen.

 

   

Asia. Asia is the largest plant-based dairy market in the world, predominately driven by traditionally high consumption of soy-based beverages, which represents more than half of the Asia plant-based milk market. Based on Consumer Insights, “new generation plant-based milk,” which are plant-based dairy products comparable to Oatly’s product offering, penetration in China was 16%; however, the use of “traditional plant-based milk,” which is sweetened or flavored plant-based milk products that are mostly used as soft drinks, is widespread, with 74% of the Chinese adult population having consumed such product in the last three months as of the date of Consumer Insights. New generation plant-based milk has been growing quickly, with 45% of consumers having joined the category in the last year, driven by growth in coffee consumption, changes in eating habits and influence from global trends of sustainability and nutrition. According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the plant-based dairy industry in Asia (excluding soy drinks in China) was estimated to be $8 billion in 2020, representing 4.7% of the dairy industry and is expected to increase moderately by 2025. Lactose intolerance is widely present in Asian countries, leading to a potential underlying demand for plant-based dairy, according to Lancet. China’s plant-based dairy market is estimated to double by 2025, partially driven by new plant-based brands such as Oatly.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following strengths differentiate us from our competitors and enable us to grow our leading market position and drive continued success, while staying committed to our sustainability priorities.

Purpose-Driven to Create a Plant-Based Sustainable Food System

Oatly is a people and planet organization guided by values that matter to people. Sustainability is intrinsic to our business model and forms the foundation of every strategic decision we make across the value chain. Our holistic, end-to-end sustainability commitment ranges from being the first company in Europe to utilize a fleet of heavy-duty electric trucks for true commercial routes to leading industry change by disclosing our per product carbon footprint on our packages. Our sustainability mindset extends beyond our operational decisions and is integrated into all of our business decisions, proven by the fact that we were the first company in the plant-based industry to issue a sustainability-linked credit facility. Rooted and validated through our research, we believe the growth of our products is an actionable solution to some of society’s greatest environmental and nutritional challenges. We are focused on driving the global appetite and market for plant-based dairy, and we are just scratching the surface. With every liter of Oatly we produce, our positive environmental and societal impact increases. We strive to drive meaningful change within the food industry by making it easier for people to turn what they eat and drink into personal moments of healthy joy, while reducing the impact on the planet’s resources in the process. Our unwavering commitment to sustainability fuels our growth.

 

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Authentic Brand Beloved by Consumers

We believe the Oatly brand has become one of the strongest voices that stands for what consumers care about: sustainability, health and trust. We have torn down the conventional corporate approach to brand building and have developed a voice that is human, compelling and honest. We strive to not only be a product, but also a presence in our consumers’ lives by offering authenticity in a category that has traditionally cared little about sustainability. Our advertisements are bold and eye-catching, meant to drive conversation among consumers, while challenging norms and outdated industry practices. We have a trusted consumer relations function that supports initiatives and hosts events within our communities, driving our ability to initiate real dialogue across regions, cultures and among a rapidly expanding customer base.

Creativity is at the center of the Oatly brand. Through the efforts of our authentic and award-winning in-house creative team, we have cultivated a loyal consumer base that is highly aligned with our ambitions. According to Consumer Insights, we outperformed other plant-based dairy brands across the United Kingdom, United States and Germany on all factors that matter to consumers: emotional connection, sustainability and health credentials, as well as delivering on taste. We believe our strong resonance with consumers will further propel our growth and support the transition to a plant-based food system.

Market-Leading Product Portfolio Disrupting the Global Dairy Market

We are leading the effort to disrupt the $592 billion global dairy retail market. We are the highest selling oatmilk brand by retail sales value in Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom in grocery in the dairy alternative non-milk based category for 2020, according to Nielsen and IRI Infoscan. In 2020, we drove 49%, 43% and 13% of plant-based milk growth in the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States according to Nielsen and IRI Infoscan. Within our core markets of Sweden, the United Kingdom and Germany, our brand contributed the most sales growth to the plant-based milk category in 2020.

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Source:

Nielsen, IRI.

Notes:

U.K. IRI data as of January 2, 2021, Germany Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020 and U.S. Nielsen data as of December 26, 2020.

(1)

Market shares in the total plant-based milk category represent rolling four weeks period.

(2)

Calculated as the sales value increase for Oatly divided by the sales value increase for the total plant-based milk category for the full year 2020 in the absolute dollar amount.

(3)

Dairy Alternatives.

We have demonstrated global commercial success through our expansion into more than 20 markets across three continents. We believe our sustainable, nutritious and tasty products are accelerating the adoption of plant-based dairy by converting traditional dairy consumers into Oatly fans. Our loyal consumer base has supported and driven our extension beyond just the plant-based dairy category, and we currently have a broad product portfolio across seven categories that includes frozen desserts, Oatgurt, creams, spreads and on-the-go drinks. As evidenced

 

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by the commercial success of previous product category launches, our consumers desire further category innovation, providing us with a basis to continue converting cow milk consumers across occasions and disrupt the animal-based dairy industry.

Unparalleled Innovation Capabilities Grounded in 25 Years of Patented Technologies, Craftsmanship and Oat Expertise

Oatly was founded by food scientists on a mission to create an upgraded alternative to traditional dairy. They had simple goals: first, to make a plant-based dairy that was in tune with the needs of both humans and the planet, and second, to make it taste delicious. We launched the world’s first oatmilk product in 1995 and have been the only company focused solely on liquid oat technology for more than 25 years, working to put forward the best possible version of milk. Through our commitment to oats, we have developed a proprietary oat base production technology that leverages patented enzymatic processes to turn oats into a nutritional, great tasting liquid product. Our patents are supplemented with and protected by decades of production craftsmanship and a global innovation organization.

Our production processes are built from our deep understanding of the oat from the raw material level: we work closely with our oat suppliers to ensure oats are cultivated properly through different seasons and conditions, and we understand how the natural variances in agriculture may impact our raw ingredients and products. We have exclusive partnerships with industry leaders to analyze entire oat genomes and genes to identify naturally occurring variances that help us improve on product nutritional qualities (specific protein and beta-glucan fiber profiles), technological properties (process improvements) and agronomic properties (yield and resilience). We look to science to inform our point of view on how to build our products for health and nutritional outcomes.

We continue to invest in our innovation capabilities through the expansion of our Food Innovation team on a global as well as regional level, and through our Research Hubs in Sweden and Singapore, which are currently under development, with target opening dates in 2022. These Research Hubs will further develop our long-term innovation capabilities as well as continue to conduct clinical studies on the effect of oat-based products for metabolic syndromes and personalized nutritional needs of children. Our research and development work also includes looking at the wider uses and applications of the entire raw material oats, particularly by-products and residue from the oat base production process.

We believe our innovation capabilities enable us to deliver on our promise of sustainable, delicious and nutritious products—supporting our mission to make plant-based eating easy and position us for long-term market leadership.

Multi-Channel Distribution Led by Proven Foodservice Strategy

Our successful channel penetration and execution across geographies starts with our specialty foodservice-led market entry strategy that builds awareness of our brand and products. Consumers discover Oatly in a trusted environment such as an expertly brewed cup of coffee or cappuccino from their favorite coffee shop. That quality product experience sparks a discovery journey for consumers with Oatly that can lead to purchase at a grocery store or incorporating more plant-based options in their diet. Importantly, this strategy is very difficult to replicate given this channel’s fragmented and opaque distribution networks and has only been made possible by our on-the-ground teams that understand the nuances of this channel in each specific market. While this strategy is currently best exemplified in our coffee channel through our barista relationships, we believe it is replicable across products categories through respective category foodservice channels. We are currently expanding this strategy in partnerships with multi-unit independents and large coffee chains to further drive the momentum of Oatly into new international markets.

 

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The consumer buzz that we generate through the specialty foodservice channel creates a pull-through effect into broader foodservice, food retail and e-commerce channels. As of December 31, 2020, our products are available in approximately 60,000 retail doors and 32,200 coffee shops across more than 20 countries globally. Our recent branded partnership with Starbucks as the exclusive oatmilk provider in China and the United States has resulted in distribution through more than 8,000 locations, which is indicative of our broad appeal and will be important to driving wide-scale adoption. In addition, on March 1, 2021, Starbucks announced that Oatly would be the exclusive oatmilk added to its core U.S. menu nationwide. We have successfully expanded our distribution from niche foodservice concepts to mainstream retail partnerships with conventional and natural grocer channels, including Walmart, Target, Whole Foods, Kroger and Tesco, to reach more of the consumer base. We have scaled e-commerce platforms in China and the United Kingdom, where our e-commerce business accounts for 21% of our revenue in China for 2020, where we are the #1 oatmilk brand on Tmall, which represents a larger percentage of sales compared to other markets, with the opportunity to be deployed in all of our markets.

Visionary Leadership Focused on People and Planet

We have an experienced and passionate executive team that has helmed the acceleration of our growth and set our strategic direction, all underpinned by a unified purpose of sustainability. Under the leadership of our Chief Executive Officer Toni Petersson, who joined in 2012, we have strategically transformed from a producer of plant-based dairy into a purpose-driven brand, have nearly increased revenue six fold from 2017 to $421.4 million in 2020 and have successfully entered the United States, the broader Western European region and Asia Pacific. Oatly has a deep bench of talented executives with strong business and operational experience. Our leadership team brings a fresh perspective to the food industry and challenges outdated industry practices to meet consumer desires in an authentic way. We have on-the-ground regional leaders in each of our key markets with deep knowledge of the local markets. We empower our regional leaders to tailor growth strategies that speak to local consumer needs and desires for a more sustainable-focused, plant-based offering. As we scale, our culture and mission remain central to our company in each of our regions, at all levels and across divisions. Our shared mission and core belief in driving a societal shift towards a plant-based food system unifies our company in our quest for purpose-driven growth.

Our Growth Strategies

We expect to drive continued, sustainable growth and strong financial performance by executing on the following strategies:

Expand Consumer Base through Increased Awareness and Plant-Based Dairy Category Growth

The plant-based dairy market is still in its infancy. Even the most mature market and most mature category—U.S. dairy milk alternatives—has only 6% penetration compared to dairy milk by volume as of 2020, according to Euromonitor, representing significant whitespace for us to grow. Based on Consumer Insights, we found that 35% to 40% of the adult population is now purchasing dairy milk alternatives, indicating that the penetration of, and familiarity with, the category is high, creating growth opportunities from increased frequency and usage. Furthermore, almost 70% individuals purchasing dairy milk alternatives have started purchasing the product within the last two years, demonstrating the accelerating trajectory of the category and growth potential from further penetration. According to Consumer Insights, over the next three years, the dairy milk alternatives category is expected to grow 19% to 25% in our core markets, with approximately 40% of that growth from new users and the remainder from increased consumption of current users.

We believe the ability to share the Oatly story with a broader audience is critical to the success of our mission to drive greater plant-based consumption. At precisely the moment when these values are hitting mainstream culture, we are dissolving the barriers to adoption of plant-based dairy and capturing this interest by engaging consumers with our brand. While Oatly is the best-selling oatmilk in each of our key markets, we believe significant room for growth exists by increasing our penetration of the global dairy industry. We leverage

 

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research to help educate consumers on the environmental and health benefits of oat-based dairy as compared to cow-based dairy. We believe our authentic, transparent and sustainability-driven brand has become a trusted voice among our consumers and retail partners, which in turn, has driven Oatly’s success across each of our markets. We believe our commercial efforts and proven execution to increase knowledge and awareness of the Oatly brand will enable us to capture more of the total addressable market, with the end result of reaching and inspiring a wide range of consumers from dairy loyalists to lifelong vegans to eat in a way that is not only better for their health, but also better for our planet.

Grow Distribution and Velocity in New and Existing Markets

We will leverage the significant demand for Oatly products to grow in new and existing markets. We believe we can continue to build on industry-leading food retail performance by growing velocity and expanding on-shelf presence with Oatly’s full portfolio. Our accelerating performance in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, where we have consistently increased velocity, is indicative of the potential we see across each of our international markets, including China. Furthermore, there is significant whitespace to expand our foodservice and food retail locations within our existing markets. The food retail channel, in particular, has welcomed Oatly on shelves as we have driven incremental profit, traffic and premiumization in a milk category that was shifting towards private label. Our TDP share, which represents our brand’s total distribution points as a percentage of the total oatmilk category distribution points, of 40%, 32% and 13% in the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States, respectively, indicates the significant upside in our existing markets. As of December 31, 2020, our oatmilk product was sold in 32,200 coffee shops and at approximately 60,000 retail doors, representing a fraction of the total addressable retail locations.

 

United Kingdom

   Germany    United States

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Source: Nielsen IRI Infoscan. United Kingdom periods ended week 52, 2019 and 2020 (January 2, 2020 and January 2, 2021). Germany periods ended week 52, 2019 and 2020. United States periods ended week 52, 2019 and 2020 (December 28, 2019 and December 26, 2020).

 

  (1)

Reflects Oatly’s top selling stock keeping unit by sales value (GBP) for the 52 weeks ended January 2, 2021: Oatly Barista Edition, Ambient, Non-organic, Plain, 1L velocity in the United Kingdom for the last four week periods.

 

  (2)

Reflects Oatly’s top selling stock keeping unit by sales value (EUR) for the 52 weeks ended week 52, 2020: Oatly Barista Edition, Hafer, 1L TBRI velocity in Germany for the last four week periods.

 

  (3)

Reflects Oatly’s top selling stock keeping unit by sales value (USD) for the 52 weeks ended December 26, 2020: Oatly Chilled, 64 fl oz velocity in the United States for the last four week periods.

 

  (4)

Velocity means the average volume of sales per store per week measured in units.

 

  (5)

% Distribution Share of Total Selling Points represents Oatly’s brand level total number of selling points (aggregate number of selling stores per SKU) as a percent of the total dairy-alternative milk industry’s number of selling points (aggregate number of selling stores per SKU) for the full year period. In the United Kingdom, the dairy alternative milk industry’s total number of selling

 

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  points equaled 331,019 and 400,561 for 2019 and 2020, respectively, and Oatly’s total number of selling points equaled 23,606 and 42,463 for 2019 and 2020, respectively. In Germany, the dairy alternative milk industry’s total number of selling points equaled 567,883 and 660,248 for 2019 and 2020, respectively, and Oatly’s total number of selling points equaled 32,870 and 65,160 for 2019 and 2020, respectively. In the United States, the dairy-alternative milk industry’s total number of selling points equaled 2,376,320 and 2,300,960 for 2019 and 2020, respectively, and Oatly’s total number of selling points equaled 18,014 and 28,027 for 2019 and 2020, respectively.
  (6)

Calculated as the sales value increase for Oatly divided by the sales value increase for the total plant-based milk category for the full year 2020 in the absolute dollar amount.

Beyond our existing footprint, we believe we have a significant opportunity to expand into new international markets, which represent $272 billion of the global retail dairy market as of 2020. We believe we are well positioned to enter new markets due to our established global presence and proven execution in three continents. In Europe, we are only in the early stages of development in many of the continent’s largest dairy markets: Spain, France and Italy, representing a $53 billion in dairy market retail opportunity as of 2020. We plan to leverage our proven foodservice-led strategy to encourage trial, generate strong consumer buzz and create strong pull into the food retail channel, driving exponential growth. With increasing health awareness and attention on sustainability among younger generations and long history of plant-based food consumption, we expect accelerating growth in new markets.

We believe the Asia region, with a primary focus on China, represents one of our largest near term opportunities. In China, following our foodservice-led strategy executed in the specialty coffee and tea channel, as of December 31, 2020, we had more than 8,200 points of sale in the channel, including an exclusive branded Starbucks partnership with 4,700 locations in China exclusive to us and partnerships with other renowned shops such as Manner, Tim Hortons, Peet’s, Costa and HEYTEA. We are further expanding our footprint in the foodservice channel and increasing our food retail presence in China. We have also scaled our e-commerce presence through strategic partnership with Alibaba’s Tmall to increase our reach.

As evidenced by our successful expansion into more than 20 countries across three continents, we believe our ability to execute upon our foodservice-led market entry strategy will bolster our growth as we continue to enter new markets in the near and long term.

Invest in Global Operating Footprint to Support Scaled Growth Opportunity

We believe the greatest constraint on our growth has been production capacity. Historically, global demand for Oatly products has significantly outpaced our supply. In order to meet this demand, we operated four production facilities as of March 2021 and plan to open three additional facilities in the near term. Our strategy is to further execute upon our proven track record and continue to build our production capabilities across each of our regions. By increasing our production capacity, we expect to be able to drive topline growth and increase our ability to meet the existing consumer demand. Furthermore, our proven end-to-end manufacturing operations in Sweden demonstrates that our investment in owned manufacturing capabilities will drive an improved margin profile due to more favorable economics. While our long-term strategy is to own and operate a self-sufficient global operating footprint, we realize that in the interim, we must create innovative solutions to meet our growing demand. Accordingly, we currently utilize multiple production solutions to help address demand by supplementing our end-to-end self-manufacturing with co-packing. Co-packers provide critical and flexible support to drive volumes with speed, and this method will remain an important part of our production setup as we continue to launch new product categories and formats.

Ultimately, we believe our long-term strategy of operating end-to-end manufacturing facilities delivers control over our footprint that is necessary to meet our speed-to-market, sustainability, economic and innovation goals. Specific competitive advantages of this strategy include: secured production capacity in an increasingly competitive market; end-to-end process control ensuring product quality; control over equipment and processes related to sustainability; and proximity to consumer end markets to drive attractive production economics. We believe we are still in the early stages of the inevitable transition to a plant-based food system and will continue to invest in our production capabilities to spearhead this consumer movement.

 

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Extend Product Offerings through Innovation

We continually strive to improve upon our products in order to deliver the most innovative, nutritious, sustainable and delicious form of liquid oats. We take a long-term, thoughtful approach to research that informs our product decisions and is differentiated from the marketplace. Due to our scientific heritage and proven execution, we believe we are well positioned to leverage research and innovation to solve societal problems. We are redefining the future of the plant-based dairy industry, focusing our research and innovation in key areas such as improving the nutrition, taste, functionality and health effects of our products. We have ambitious, long-term innovation goals, which we believe will lead to sustained market leadership through the use of cutting edge processes to deliver the advanced products.

We are able to bridge the research to the desired commercial outcome due to our knowledge of the oat genome and production craftsmanship, allowing us to solve for elements related to process, taste and health in order to achieve our sustainability and nutritional goals. We tailor our products to local consumer demands and further facilitate the consumer transition from cow-based dairy products to Oatly. We directly target dairy consumption by mirroring the traditional dairy portfolio in look, feel, taste and function. For example, within the retail channel we show a one-to-one equivalency between oat and dairy by mirroring dairy’s chilled section and product profiles (for example, low-fat to full-fat) and flavors (such as original and chocolate). We believe the past success of our new product introductions as well as our consumer brand loyalty will drive the successful launch of new products. Furthermore, we have significant runway to roll out our full product portfolio in our existing markets, which is limited by supply constraints. With our continued investment in innovative and patented technologies, we aim to facilitate our consumers’ transition from cow-based dairy products to Oatly and strive to empower them to choose solutions that improve their lives and the planet.

Continuing Commitment to Doing Right by the Planet

As a people and planet organization, our goal is to drive a positive societal shift towards a more sustainable food system, rooted in plant-based eating, by putting sustainability at the core of our strategy and products. In driving this change, we ensure that sustainability is built into every level of our supply chain, from agriculture to packaging, because a plant-based system will only be as sustainable as the processes used to build it. We are a new generation company appealing to a new generation of consumers. The current food system requires change, and we strive to be a driving force behind this change. We are actionably addressing society’s greatest sustainability and health problems, and for that, we believe we will find further success in the marketplace. As a company, we have been on this mission for decades and are not bound by the traditional interests or structures of the food industry. Thus, we have the ability to creatively form our future to address, and adapt to, societal challenges. Due to our powerful voice and authentic and clear brand values, we believe we are well-positioned to capture the tailwinds created from these changing consumer behaviors. Buoyed by our commercial success, we strive to serve as a proof point of sustainable investing and trigger a broader shift of capital deployment towards green initiatives and a greener future. As we grow, our commitment to our mission becomes even stronger and more important and impactful. Our purpose fuels our growth, and in turn, our growth fuels progress towards a more sustainable food system.

 

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Product Overview

Our Products

We offer a range of plant-based dairy products made from oats. The foundation for all these products is our proprietary oat base technology, which mimics nature’s own process and turns fiber-rich oats into products that are designed for humans. The graphic below illustrates a selection of our products that are available in the various markets in which we operate.

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Product Standards

We take great care to reach a number of third-party product certifications in our global markets. All of Oatly’s partner production facilities are subject to careful cleaning and testing protocols to prevent cross-contamination and we conduct tests on final products to ensure safety.

 

   

Dairy-free. Our products are dairy free and vegan.

 

   

Soy-free. Our products do not include soy.

 

   

Gluten-free. Our products are certified gluten-free in the United States by Gluten Intolerance Group of North America. Our products sold in EMEA and Asia regions contain less than 100 ppm (mg/kg product) gluten from wheat, rye and barley, comparable to products that are labelled as “very low gluten.”

 

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Nut-free. Our U.S. products reach strict nut-free certification. Our EMEA product range does not contain nuts, with the exception of one flavor of our frozen desserts products (Hazelnut swirl), and we have strict due diligence procedures in place with our suppliers to further minimize the likelihood that nuts are included in our products.

 

   

Non-genetically modified organism (“GMO”). We are committed to using only non-GMO ingredients and our U.S. product line is certified by the Non-GMO Project.

 

   

Organic. We offer organic versions of our milk and cream products across EMEA markets. Our organic oats from Sweden are certified according to KRAV, a rigorous third party organic certification.

 

   

Kosher. All our products in the United States are certified kosher by Orthodox Union Kosher.

 

   

Glyphosate free. We carefully source our oats from trusted suppliers who avoid the use of glyphosate, a common chemical pesticide on their oats. In the United States, our oatmilk is certified glyphosate residue free by the Detox Project.

Oatmilk. Our oatmilk products have multiple profiles and flavors that mirror the traditional dairy shelf consumers expect. The following highlights our U.S. milk portfolio:

 

   

Original: A great option for everyday use, with a 2% fat profile from oats and rapeseed oil. The only sugars in this product are those that are produced from oats during the enzymatic process.

 

   

Low-fat: A lighter profile milk, with only 0.5% fat.

 

   

Full-fat: Contains one gram of saturated fat per serving, compared to five grams usually contained in cow’s milk. Our full-fat oatmilk also includes DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid.

 

   

Flavored: Our Chocolate oatmilk uses cocoa that ensures sustainable farming practices and fair working conditions from suppliers. In Sweden, we also sell an Orange-Mango flavored oatmilk.

Our oatmilk products are offered across both ambient and chilled packaging formats. Ambient (shelf-stable) packaging has the benefit of room-temperature storage perfectly suited for shipping to coffee shops, cafes and other foodservice locations. Ambient formats are also sold in retail and e-commerce channels in all of our regions.

Barista Edition Oatmilk. Our Barista Edition oatmilk is our best-selling product globally. With a fat content of 3%, it is formulated to improve creaminess and foamability, serving as the perfect complement to espresso and coffee drinks like lattes and cappuccinos. Barista Edition is also great for baking and cooking and can be enjoyed on its own.

Oatgurt. We believe our Oatgurts excel in aspects of taste and consistency, as they are thick and “spoonable.” Our first Oatgurts were pourable, smooth and flavored yogurts launched in the Nordics to fit local consumer tastes. We leveraged the initial Nordic product innovation to launch a U.K. product line in cup format, and a U.S. line that includes live and active cultures and “fruit on the bottom.” We continue to iterate and improve our Oatgurt formulas.

 

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Frozen desserts and novelties. Oatly frozen desserts are available in the United States and across many of our EMEA markets in a range of flavors. Our frozen desserts are created using our core oat base technology, which provides a foundational creaminess and reduces the need for sugar and other mix-in ingredients commonly found in dairy alternative ice creams.

 

 

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Cooking. We offer a wide range of cooking products including Cooking Cream, in regular and organic, Crème Fraiche, Whipping Cream, Vanilla Custard and Spreads in a variety of flavors. Our offerings vary by region to accommodate to local cuisines and preferences. A key technical innovation in our cooking suite is, for example, that our Whipping Cream (heavy cream) holds its integrity similar to traditional dairy heavy cream would when stirred, boiled and whipped – even in highly stressed situations, such as in hot, acidic dishes. We have designed our cooking products as a direct 1:1 replacement for traditional dairy-based counterparts, so consumers can easily integrate them into common recipes.

Ready-to-go drinks. Our range of on-the-go drinks delivers novel flavor experiences and product packaging in smaller formats. These products can be found at grocery stores, supermarkets, convenience store outlets and more across the EMEA and Asia regions. Our on-the-go products include Cold Brew Latte, Mocha Latte, Matcha Latte and Mini Oatmilk in original and chocolate flavors.

This product platform allows us to thoughtfully design products for local contexts and sequence effective portfolio rollouts alongside our retail, e-commerce and foodservice partners. We expect to further expand our product range and improve upon our existing offerings in pursuit of our goal to deliver upgraded options across the full dairy portfolio.

Innovation

Since inception, our innovation goal has been to build the best possible form of milk and other dairy products for humans and our planet. Our approach is to not mimic traditional forms of milk, but to create a better product, designed for human needs. Through our more than 25 year history of making oat products, we have developed a deep expertise around oats and production craftsmanship. We invest in research to understand oats as a raw material, down to the genome level, allowing us to choose varieties of oats most suitable for process benefits and product goals around taste, experience, sustainability and nutrition. We believe we are well positioned to leverage science to address key societal problems and maintain our market leadership in plant-based dairy.

Today, we have a global Food Innovation team with a central technology development team in Sweden, and globally led but regionally executed, product development teams in the United States, EMEA and Asia. Through

 

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this set-up, we are efficiently building deep technology know-how and expertise, as well as ensuring that our products are developed close to consumers, according to locally relevant consumer preferences. With our focus on building a broad and relevant product portfolio within plant-based dairy, we continuously explore and enter new product categories, making the change to plant-based easy for the consumers. We strive to create great, sustainable, delicious and nutritious food with optimal taste, functionality and texture. For more complex products, our unique competence on how to combine our oat base with other high-quality plant-based ingredients is key to success. To further strengthen our capabilities, we are establishing Research Hubs in Sweden and Singapore and partner with leading scientists and industry experts to ensure we stay at the forefront of oat expertise. To achieve our long-term innovation goals, we study oats at the genome and raw material levels and are working to conduct clinical trials. Specifically, we have exclusive partnerships with highly regarded, third-party institutions in oat molecular genomics to analyze the entire oat genome, giving us access to unique oat varieties that are optimized for nutritional qualities, (specific protein and beta-glucan fiber profiles), technological properties (process improvements) and agronomic properties (yield and resilience). These factors enable us to produce an oat base with a macro-nutritional profile tailored to human health needs with a target taste profile.

The premise of our patented oat base technology is an enzymatic process that closely mirrors the human body’s process used to breakdown starches. This process allows us to achieve a robust macro-nutritional profile with soluble dietary fibers, stable composition and functional character of foamability and texture. To inform the inputs and ideal properties of our oat base, we partner with leading universities and industry experts to conduct clinical studies and research the health and nutritional effects of oatmilk. We believe this research and our process expertise is highly relevant amidst the global prevalence of lifestyle disease and related health concerns.    

We believe the success of our core products and new product launches demonstrate innovation capabilities and our consumers’ eagerness for an extended Oatly product portfolio. Our innovation team directly targets dairy consumption by providing an upgraded product experience along many dimensions and continues to challenge the dairy industry by expanding the boundaries of plant-based dairy products, including yogurts, creams, spreads and more. For example, in 2020, we launched dozens of new items across the regions in which we operate, including localized versions of existing products with reformulated taste and texture profiles tailored for their respective markets, as well as several new entries in our Oatgurts category and an entirely new oat-based whipping cream. As of December 31, 2020, we had more than 50 full time employees on our innovation management and research and development team. With our science-backed, taste-centric approach to innovation, we believe we are well positioned to continue launching new products across the full suite of dairy categories.

Advertising and Creative

Through a bold advertising strategy, we amplify what our brand stands for and use our company voice in service of our mission: to challenge industry norms and inspire societal change.

All of our advertising content is created in-house, ensuring a consistent brand message across regions and product lines. Our advertisements can be found across a variety of platforms, including out-of-home locations, for example billboards, signage, bus and train banners and large-scale printed murals and print media, such as newspapers and magazines.

 

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Our packaging is an integral element of our advertising strategy. We regard our packaging itself as a valuable way to develop a dialogue with our consumers and foster an added long-standing relationship as they

 

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are enjoying the product. Further, we consistently feature our recognizable packaging in advertisements to build awareness of our brand and products.

 

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Our in-house global team of approximately 50 experienced and highly acclaimed creative professionals are instrumental in developing Oatly’s brand that has been studied by marketing and advertising professionals across the world. Our creative team collaborates closely and directly with various corporate functions, ranging from product development to corporate communication, during their creative process and actively participates in decision-making processes across the company. Such direct involvement ensures alignment across the company to serve the brand and efficient execution of our creative ideas.

To further develop our brand, we also employ commercial partnerships, including co-branded merchandise in Starbucks China’s 4,700 locations exclusive to us, and sponsored events across the world that have attracted more than 250,000 attendees who share our brand’s values, such as sustainability talks and zero waste latte art competitions.

In addition, we have a dedicated consumer relations team that maintains one-on-one dialogues with our consumers across regions and cultures, allowing us to foster a meaningful relationship between our brand and consumers while we rapidly expand our reach. We have highly engaged social media followings and utilize platforms including Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and YouTube, among others, to communicate.

 

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We execute our brand activity with efficient branding, advertising and marketing spend and mix. Building on our prior success, we intend to continue to invest in our brand through creative advertising and marketing, including adding additional media platforms such as television.

Our unique brand drives an emotional connection with our consumers. According to Consumer Insights, Oatly’s consumers were found to be highly engaged and caring deeply about a broad range of issues from health to sustainability, animal welfare and plant-based product attributes such as taste and texture. We scored highly on being a brand consumers can relate to, that aligns with their values and being a brand they trust.

Channels / Customers

Our diversified portfolio of products is available in more than 20 countries across three continents through a variety of channels, including foodservice, food retail and e-commerce. As of December 2020, we distributed through approximately 32,200 coffee shops and teashops and 60,000 retail doors around the world. Our products are also available on major e-commerce platforms, such as Amazon, Ocado, Tmall.com (owned by Alibaba) and JD.com. Because of our strong brand equity, loyal customer base and evolving product portfolio, we believe there are significant growth opportunities across these channels as we deepen our distribution in each of our markets.

Foodservice

We have successfully entered multiple international markets, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, China and the United States, with strategy proven market entry strategy via the specialty coffee channel. We enjoy a strong and hard-to-replicate presence among independent, specialty coffee shops by successfully navigating the sector’s fragmented and opaque distribution networks. According to Consumer Insights, Oatly is more visible in the foodservice channel as compared to our competitors and is the best-selling brand by consumption in the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden. Our dedicated internal team has a deep understanding of the industry’s channel dynamics and helps us develop a strong relationship with the barista community, who play an instrumental role in driving our company’s mission forward and generate awareness for plant-based dairy by introducing Oatly’s products to new consumers in a context-specific manner: a delicious cup of coffee. In addition to specialty coffee shops, we maintain global and regional partnerships with large coffee and tea chains, such as Starbucks, within the United States and HEYTEA, within China.

As of December 31, 2020, we distributed through approximately 32,200 coffee shops and teashops around the world, including 12,500 in Europe, 10,000 in the United States and 9,700 in Asia. In addition to coffee shops, Oatly is available in workplaces, hotels and more.

Moving forward, we believe there are incremental growth opportunities in foodservice through expanding our available product range and moving into new segments of the market. In the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, the foodservice channel accounted for approximately 22% and 25% of our revenue, respectively.

As our product portfolio continues to evolve, we intend to expand our presence in foodservice segments. We believe there are incremental growth opportunities to expand these products into other foodservice segments to connect our brand with a broader range of consumers. In addition, we collaborate with our foodservice partners to conduct additional marketing of our products, such as our co-branded Starbucks merchandise in Asia, and educate consumers on plant-based dairy, which we believe will accelerate our consumer outreach and increase our brand awareness.

Food Retail

Our products are also available at major food retailers across the mass and natural grocer channels. We maintain a strong and collaborative relationship with leading food retailers in our key markets, such as Kroger,

 

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Target, Walmart and Whole Foods in the United States, Tesco and Sainsbury’s in the United Kingdom and REWE and Edeka in Germany. As of December 31, 2020, we distributed through approximately 60,000 retail doors around the world, including 46,000 in Europe, 7,500 in the United States and 6,200 in Asia.

E-Commerce

We maintain an active presence on selective major e-commerce platforms, including Amazon, Ocado, Tmall.com (owned by Alibaba) and JD.com. Supported by our online creative content, our e-commerce channel is highly complementary to our offline presence. E-commerce has played a particularly important role as we expand in Asia. In China, our strong presence on Tmall.com, JD.com and other mainstream e-commerce platforms has accelerated our revenue growth. In 2020, on Tmall.com, we outsold our plant-based competitors by at least three times based on Tmall’s e-commerce GMV rankings by brand store for the plant-based category. Our products have earned multiple acclaims from our e-commerce partners: in 2019, we received the “Most Innovative Brand” award and “Annual Exemplary Brand Award” from Tmall.com, and we are Alibaba’s chosen e-commerce partner for the plant-based category. We believe there is a significant opportunity to grow our e-commerce channel as we scale.

Supply Chain Operations

The core goal of our production organization is to scale a proprietary, global footprint with a positive bottom-line, while efficiently and sustainably utilizing resources. Throughout our process, where we choose to make our products and with whom we choose to partner are strategic decisions underpinned by sustainability and stakeholders considerations. We aim to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions through logistical and sourcing efficiencies, minimize our scrap material use and minimize our by-product waste. As our company and the demand for our products grows, we continue to strategically consider how we can further increase our supply chain optimization and sustainability outcomes.

Sourcing Oats, Ingredients and Packaging

The Oatly journey begins with the sourcing of our inputs. We take great care in ensuring that our ingredients and inputs are sourced from partners who share our sustainable goals and continually conduct diligence to mitigate potential social and environmental risks in our sourcing supply chain. Sourcing of oats, packaging and other ingredients for our products is centralized at the corporate-level to leverage the scale and global nature of our operations, maximizing sustainability gains and adaptability of supply chain operations.

 

   

Sourcing oats. We source oats from regional millers, and we secure regional supply and capacity while minimizing transportation distance and expenses. Within our regions, we work with farmers to implement sustainable agricultural strategies for oat cultivation, as well as actively seek to aid meat and dairy farmers to increase the amount of crops they grow for human consumption.

 

   

Packaging. We source packaging materials from global suppliers with regional footprints. For specialized packing materials, we may use regional suppliers who utilize innovative materials and to minimize transportation distance and expenses.

 

   

Rapeseed oil and other strategic ingredients. We source non-GMO rapeseed oil. For our products produced in EMEA, we source from Sweden, and for products produced in the United States, we source from Canada. We have carefully considered and chosen rapeseed oil for our oatmilks to deliver on the balance of sustainable, nutritious and delicious, as it has a high content of monounsaturated fat and low levels of saturated fat, combined with a neutral taste profile.

 

   

We generally source our non-strategic ingredients, such as salt and sugar, regionally.

Our Oat Suppliers

We currently work closely with five oat suppliers to source our oats – we have one supplier in Belgium, one in Malaysia, two in Sweden and one in the United States. We have agreements in place with each of these

 

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suppliers and believe that the terms contained in these agreements are customary for such suppliers in our industry. Under each of these agreements, we are required to provide forecasts of our anticipated needs for certain periods of time to assess the supply we will require for the upcoming term, and the oats supplied under each of these agreements are subject to certain quality control and sustainability requirements. Our agreements with our suppliers in Belgium, Malaysia and the United States have terms of three years, which began on January 1, 2019, January 1, 2021 and October 1, 2019, respectively, with an automatic renewal for an additional two years thereafter in each agreement. Our agreement with one of our Swedish suppliers is a framework agreement, which began on February 9, 2018 and remains in effect until further notice and may be terminated by either party by providing six months’ notice. Our agreement with our other Swedish supplier remains in effect until either party provides at least 24 months’ notice, but neither party may terminate the agreement until the fifth anniversary of when this supplier began production, which started on February 3, 2021.

Production Process Overview

The Oatly production journey consists of the following key steps, beginning with our core science and oat base technology:

 

   

Manufacturing our proprietary oat base. Oats are cleaned, dehulled and heated to groats, which then undergo our patented enzymatic processing to form the basis of our core oat base. Critically, our process separates out insoluble oat fiber fractions, retaining beneficial, soluble dietary fibers (beta-glucans). We own and manage the majority of our oat base manufacturing facilities globally. To minimize the risk of infringement of our IP rights, we only outsource a limited number of oat base recipes.

 

   

Transporting the oat base to a filling plant, where applicable. In instances where we are using a co-partner, we transport the oat base to a filling plant, either by a pipeline to a nearby filling plant or by a tanker truck to co-packers, who assist us with mixing and filling.

 

   

Turning oat base into finished products. In the mixing and filling stages, we turn oat base into the variety of products that we sell. This process takes on different forms based on the end product. For our oatmilks, we add water and other ingredients, such as flavors and vitamins to our oat base, which are mixed together to become an Oatly formula. The product is then Ultra-High Temperature (“UHT”) treated and stored in a sterile tank until packaged in different formats and sizes.

 

   

Delivering products to fulfillment warehouses. We then take the finished products to our fulfillment warehouses, where they will be distributed to our customers.

 

   

Ensuring quality. We strive to ensure that our products meet both externally mandated quality control regulations and standards, as well as internally established quality standards through a framework of procedures. These include a range of activities throughout the production process, such as supplier and raw material assessments, lab analysis and regulatory landscape monitoring. We follow strict allergen management protocols throughout our entire value chain in order to prevent cross-contamination. We source our raw material from suppliers with allergen management control programs and, in our factories and those of our co-producers, we enforce validated cleaning programs verified with lab testing.

Production Models

We utilize three main supply models to meet global demand for our products: co-packing, hybrid and end-to-end self-manufacturing. In our co-packing model, we transport our oat base through tanker trucks to our strategically chosen third-party partners for filling and mixing. In our hybrid solution, we transport our oat base through pipelines to a physically adjacent plant operated by our third-party partners for filling and mixing. Using an end-to-end self-manufacturing model, we produce the oat base, mix and fill the products at a single Oatly-owned and operated facility. The end-to-end solution allows us to most effectively and efficiently serve our

 

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customers and consumers while driving the highest gross margins for our business. Long term, we plan to strategically shift towards this manufacturing model, which will provide us with the most flexibility, fastest speed-to-market, highest quality control and significant scale efficiencies and ultimately more favorable economics.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 52% of our products were produced through the co-packing and complete outsourcing model, 24% through a hybrid model and 24% through our own end-to-end manufacturing.

Geographic Footprint

We have strategically built our factories and manufacturing facilities to be in close proximity to our consumers as well as our co-packers, where applicable. This allows us to reduce our transportation costs, which both lowers our environmental impact and drives production efficiencies and cost savings. We have grown our production facilities from one site in Sweden in 2018, to three across Europe and the United States as of December 31, 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we had a production capacity of 350 million liters of finished goods equivalent of oat base, with plans to open three additional facilities in the near term to form a global footprint across EMEA, the United States and Asia. Through these efforts, we expect to increase our production capacity to approximately 600 million liters of finished goods equivalent of oat base by 2021, one billion liters by 2022 and 1.4 billion liters by 2023, as measured by finished goods product liters. Our estimated production capacities depend on several factors, and any delays, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, or changes in our estimated capital expenditures could delay future production capacity. We consider capital expenditures to be a critical input to fueling future growth.

 

 

LOGO

Distribution and Freight Execution

We have taken specific actions towards company sustainability goals through our distribution decisions. Our warehousing network is purposefully designed to optimize proximity to our production facilities and to customer concentration in order to minimize costs and environmental impacts. We expect to continue to see a blend of electric, train, bio-gas and other more sustainable logistics solutions on our routes over time.

 

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We leverage a range of logistics and distribution solutions to meet the requirements of each geographic market, including: direct distribution, exclusive distribution, distribution agents and e-commerce. The system that we use in a specific region depends on a number of factors, including market potential, maturity and associated risks. Our preference is to use direct or exclusive distribution whenever possible.

We use multiple freight execution schemes across our regions, dependent upon our supply chain arrangement.

 

   

Americas. The majority of our transit is Oatly managed, including freight from co-packer to warehouse and freight from warehouse to customer.

 

   

EMEA. We are using multiple transportation options, including the use of electric truck transport, inbound to warehouse and outbound to customers, optimized for sustainability and cost and managed either by Oatly, a third-party provider or the customer.

 

   

Asia. Freight of finished products to Asia from our production facilities has historically been executed by a third-party partner using sea and rail. We also utilize local third-party providers to handle logistics within the region.

Our Organization and People

Our organizational development is led by our People and Transformation team, whose goal is to institutionalize the principles of flexibility, innovation and continuous learning in our work environment. We invest heavily in programming and resources that promote individual, cultural, structural and process changes towards our goals. Our teams are organized to generate holistic, cross-functional insights and solutions to business problems.

To meet our sustainability mission, we need the expertise of a diverse group of coworkers who feel that they work in a safe, inclusive and empowering environment, are compensated equitably for their work and protected from discrimination of any kind. Rooted in our core promise to be a good company, we recognize that our employees work best when they are celebrated for bringing their whole selves to work. All this to say: Oat Punks are valued for their individuality and for their unique contributions that shape Oatly, and as an employer, we are committed to ensuring our employees’ dignity, safety and wellbeing.

This applies to all aspects of employment. We communicate “Oatly’s Guiding Principles” to our employees to align our organization and foster a culture founded on sustainability, health and trust. We continuously make efforts to ensure that our policies regarding hiring, compensation, promotion and transfer are based solely on job requirements, job performance and job-related criteria. We aim to apply our employment policies and practice in full compliance with applicable national and local fair employment laws, including those relating to compensation, benefits, transfer, retention, termination, training, career development opportunities and social and recreational programs.

Given the global nature of our business, we actively work to have employee bases that reflect the demographics of the end markets they serve. We work within each market’s regulations around measuring employee identity to ensure accountability and progress towards this goal.

We also conduct ongoing Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (“DEI”) work to ensure that we are fostering an inclusive and collaborative workplace environment. Select work includes: conducting discrimination surveys on a regular basis to ensure no one has or is currently experiencing discrimination; developing a transformation framework, called the Oatly Cultural Curiosity Journey, to guide our DEI work and ensure we are enacting real change rather than just checking a box; and conducting training for all managers to implement inclusive leadership.

Committed Coworkers

Sustainability at Oatly is more than making products – it is a mindset, a natural part of our everyday lives and is incorporated into all levels of decision making. Accordingly, it is important that our coworkers share

 

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both our sustainability vision, as well as feel empowered to actively participate in our journey towards a more sustainable food system. We also believe our employees values are highly aligned with our company goals, with 81% of employees saying our sustainability focus was an important reason why they applied for a job at Oatly when surveyed internally in 2020. These efforts have resulted in what we believe to be a highly satisfied coworker base, which we view as imperative to further grow and scale our company.

To ensure we are meeting and exceeding our coworkers’ expectations, we conduct both ongoing pulse surveys and annual internal surveys. We use our pulse surveys to ensure the wellbeing needs of our employees are being met throughout the year and that we are fostering a safe, collaborative work environment with engaged and inspired coworkers. Our annual surveys measure our coworkers’ perceived level of personal contribution and engagement around our sustainability work, as well as their view on Oatly’s ultimate sustainability ambition. We output this survey into the “Committed Coworkers index” to track our year-to-year progress in creating the most effective workplace environment. In the year ended December 31, 2020, our Committed Coworkers metric reached 88%, up from 80% in the year ended December 31, 2017, the first year that we started measuring this metric. Furthermore, in 2020, 91% of our coworkers thought that Oatly should be seen as a global leading example in sustainability. We believe these data points demonstrate our strongly aligned employee base and will help us to continue to improve internally to achieve our sustainability mission.

Employees

For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, we had 290, 520 and 792 employees, respectively.

The table below sets out the number of employees by geography:

 

Geography

   As of December 31,
2020
 

EMEA(1)

     553  

United States

     163  

Asia(2)

     76  
  

 

 

 

Total

                 792  
  

 

 

 

 

  (1)

The majority of our EMEA employees are located in Sweden.

  (2)

Asia employees primarily based in Shanghai, Hong Kong and Singapore.

The table below sets out the number of employees by category:

 

Department

   As of December 31,
2020
 

Production, supply chain and operations

     219  

Sales

     80  

Finance

     55  

Innovation management and research and development

     54  

Marketing and branding

     51  

Other(1)

     333  
  

 

 

 

Total

                 792  
  

 

 

 

 

  (1)

Other includes IT, employees in our facilities (as described below), quality and human resources, among others.

In line with industry standards in the country of employment, our employees maintain a range of relationships with union groups.

 

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Competition

We believe that our position as category creator and first-mover, our high-quality commercial performance, brand equity, science and innovation practice, and organizational approach differentiate us and help us maintain category leadership, despite having a higher price point, fewer promotions, limited distribution and participating in a highly competitive environment. Our competitors include traditional consumer packaged goods companies such as PepsiCo, Coca-Cola, and Chobani, traditional dairy companies, such as Nestlé, Danone, Lactalis, Fonterra HP Hood, Arla Foods and Valio, plant-based dairy companies, such as Blue Diamond Growers, Califia Farms, Ripple Foods, and Ecotone, new market entrants building lab-based products and private-label brands. We believe the principal competitive factors in our industry include:

 

   

brand equity and consumer relationships;

 

   

product experience, including taste, functionality and texture;

 

   

nutritional profile and dietary attributes;

 

   

sustainability of supply chain, including raw materials;

 

   

quality and type of ingredients;

 

   

distribution and product availability;

 

   

pricing competitiveness; and

 

   

product packaging.

We believe it is important to have strong presence across multiple channels to effectively compete. We have seen success across retail, including grocery stores and supermarkets, foodservice, including coffee shops, cafés, restaurants and fast food), and e-commerce, both direct-to-consumer and through third-party platforms. Through this channel diversification, we are able to reach a broad consumer audience and appeal to the mainstream, while being able to shift product between channels in times of market disruption, such as adapting to changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Even though we operate in a competitive industry, we believe that we effectively compete with respect to each of the above factors. However, many companies in our industry have substantially greater financial resources, longer operating histories, broader product portfolios, broader market presence, longer standing relationships with distributors and suppliers, larger production and distribution capabilities, and higher measures of household penetration or brand recognition on an absolute level.

Facilities

Corporate Offices

Our headquarters are located at Jagaregatan 4, 211 19 Malmö, Sweden. All office spaces globally are leased: Malmö, Glumslöv (SE), London, Berlin, Helsinki, Amsterdam, New York City, Shanghai and Hong Kong.

Supply Chain Operations

We currently own an end-to-end factory site in Landskrona, Sweden and oat base production facilities in our Millville, New Jersey factory. We lease a factory to produce our oat base in Vlissingen, the Netherlands. An additional four factories are currently in various stages of construction and development: we lease a facility in Ogden, Utah, which will be an end-to-end factory site; we lease a facility in Singapore, which will be an oat base production facility; and we plan to lease facilities in Maanshan City, China and Peterborough, the United Kingdom, once completed.

 

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Innovation and Product Development

We also plan to lease a new product development center in Philadelphia, which is also currently under construction.

Intellectual Property

We own domestic and international trademarks and other proprietary rights that are important to our business. Depending upon the jurisdiction, trademarks are valid as long as they are used in the regular course of trade and/or their registrations are properly maintained. Our primary trademarks are OATLY, WOW NO COW and Post Milk Generation, all of which are registered or pending registration with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Further to these, we strive to protect key elements of our marketing, signaling the commercial origin of our products and services. Our trademarks are valuable assets that reinforce the distinctiveness of our brand to our consumers. We have a global approach to protecting our trademarks, designs, patents and other IP rights. The three primary trademarks currently are registered or pending registration in around 70 countries in the world. We believe the protection of our trademarks, designs, copyrights, patents, domain names, trade dress and trade secrets are important to our success. As of February 4, 2021, we had 15 registered trademarks and 25 pending trademark applications in the United States and around 1,500 registered trademarks, pending trademark applications or designations under the Madrid protocol globally. We take an active approach in defending and expanding the scope of protection of our trademarks with a vigilant global trademark watch. We further take decisive action against potential infringers both when it comes to registrations and actual use of marks confusingly similar to trademarks protected by us.

As of March 31, 2021, we had two issued patents and three pending patent applications in the United States and more than 90 issued patents or pending patent applications globally.

We consider the specifics of our marketing, promotions and products as a trade secret and information we wish to keep confidential. In addition, we consider proprietary information related to formulas, processes, know-how and methods used in our production and manufacturing as trade secrets, and information we wish to keep confidential. We have taken reasonable measures to keep the above-mentioned items, as well as our business and marketing plans, customer lists and contracts reasonably protected, and they are accordingly not readily ascertainable by the public.

Government Regulation

Regulation of Conventional Food Products in the United States

Our products are regulated in the United States as conventional foods. As a manufacturer and distributor of food products, we, along with our distributors and ingredients and packaging suppliers, are subject to extensive laws and regulations in the United States by federal, state and local government authorities including, among others, the FTC, the FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and similar state and local agencies. Under various statutes, these agencies regulate the manufacturing, preparation, quality control, import, export, packaging, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, marketing, advertising, promotion, distribution, safety, and/or adverse event reporting of conventional foods. In the United States, manufacturers of conventional foods must adhere to current good manufacturing practices and other standards requirements applicable to the production and distribution of conventional food products. In addition, we manufacture some of our products pursuant to special certification programs such as those for organic, kosher and non-GMO products, among others, and we must comply with strict standards imposed by federal, state and third party certifying organizations with respect to these types of products and labeling claims.

The FDA regulates food products pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and its implementing regulations. In addition, pursuant to the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (“FSMA”), FDA

 

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promulgates requirements intended to enhance food safety and prevent food contamination, including more frequent inspections and increased recordkeeping and traceability requirements. The FSMA also requires that imported foods adhere to the same quality standards as domestic foods, and provides FDA with mandatory recall authority over food products that are mislabeled or misbranded. In addition, FDA requires that certain nutrient and product information appear on product labels and that the labels and labeling be truthful, not misleading. Similarly, the FTC requires that marketing and advertising claims be truthful, not misleading, not deceptive to customers and substantiated by adequate scientific data. We are also restricted from making certain claims about our products without prior FDA approval, such as health claims or claims that our products treat, cure, mitigate or prevent disease (i.e., drug claims), except under certain limited exceptions.

Products that do not comply with applicable governmental or third-party regulations and standards may be considered adulterated or misbranded and subject, but not limited, to, warning or untitled letters, product withdrawals or recalls, product seizures, relabeling or repackaging, total or partial suspensions of manufacturing or distribution, import holds, injunctions, fines, civil penalties or criminal prosecution.

Foreign Government Regulation

As we manufacture and distribute our food products in a number of markets outside of the United States, in particular Europe and Asia, we along with our ingredient and packaging suppliers and distributors are subject to a variety of foreign laws and government regulations applicable to food products. In the EEA, food products are governed by Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law as well as the procedures in matters of food safety and establishing the EFSA (“General Food Law Regulation”). Food business operators in the EEA are regulated by, among other authorities, the European Commission and EFSA, and national food safety authorities in EEA countries.

Following the end of the transition period on December 31, 2020, due to the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, the UK’s food and feed safety policy is no longer automatically governed by EU law, even though certain EU legislation (including the General Food Law Regulation) has been retained. The UK Food Safety Authority, instead of the European Commission and EFSA, is responsible for supervision of applicable laws and regulations in the UK.    

The General Food Law Regulation applies to all stages of production, processing and distribution of food with some exceptions and sets forth essential requirements with respect to food safety and traceability, determines food operators’ respective responsibilities, and establishes general principles which must be complied with such as risk analysis, precautionary and transparency principles. Food business operators must at all stages of production, processing and distribution within the businesses under their control ensure that foods satisfy the requirements of food law, in particular as to food safety, and must further ensure the traceability of food, the appropriate presentation of food, the provision of suitable food information and the prompt withdrawal or recall of unsafe food placed on the market.

The General Food Law Regulation also established the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (“RASFF”) to provide food control authorities with an effective tool to exchange information about measures taken responding to serious risks detected in relation to food. Consumers have access to a specific RASFF Consumers’ Portal, which provides information on food recalls and public health warnings.

Additionally, food business operators in the EEA must ensure that their products and activities comply with European regulations governing the presentation, advertising and claims related to food products, in particular Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, which, among other things, requires that the vast majority of pre-packed foods bear a nutrition declaration presenting the energy value and the amounts of fat, saturates, carbohydrate, sugars, protein and salt of the food in a legible tabular format on the packaging. Nutrition claims (e.g. “low fat”) and health claims (i.e. any statement about a relationship between food and health) related to food are specifically regulated by Regulation (EU) No 1924/2006, which seeks to ensure that any claim made on a food’s labeling, presentation or advertising is clear, accurate and based on

 

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scientific evidence and does not mislead European consumers. Regulation (EU) No 432/2012, as amended, establishes a list of permitted health claims (other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health). Only health and nutrition claims that have been authorized by the European Commission, as included in the aforementioned regulations and a public EU register on nutrition and health claims, can be used. Food business operators must further ensure compliance with Regulation (EC) 1333/2008 on the rules on food additives (including conditions of use, labeling and procedures) and Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013, as complemented by European Commission Decision No. 2010/791, establishing a common organization of the markets in agricultural products, which provides specific requirements for some food products including specific limits to the use of the terms “milk” and “milk products.”

Even though EU regulations are directly applicable in all EU Member States and, when specified, in Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, additional national laws and regulations may impose further requirements on food business operators.

Regulation (EU) No 2017/625 provides the general framework for official controls and other official activities, either at European or national level, to ensure the application of food law including with respect to food safety. If European or national regulatory authorities determine that the labeling, promotion, advertising and/or composition of food products is not in compliance with applicable law or regulations, or if food business operators fail to comply with such applicable laws and regulations, civil remedies or penalties, such as fines, injunctions, recalls or seizures, warning letters, restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the products, or refusals to permit the import or export of products, as well as potential criminal sanctions may be ordered. Applicable sanctions and penalties, which may include criminal sanctions, are set forth in national (Member State) laws and enforcement measures are determined by national competent authorities.

Similarly, we may be subject to similar requirements in other foreign countries in which we sell our products, including in the areas of:

 

   

manufacturing;

 

   

product standards;

 

   

product safety;

 

   

product safety reporting;

 

   

marketing, sales, and distribution;

 

   

packaging and labeling requirements;

 

   

nutritional and health claims;

 

   

advertising and promotion;

 

   

post-market surveillance;

 

   

import and export restrictions; and

 

   

tariff regulations, duties, and tax requirements.

Insurance

We maintain commercial insurance programs with third parties in the areas of property and business interruption, product liability and excess liability, among others. Our ultimate exposure may be mitigated by amounts we expect to recover from third parties associated with such claims.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may be involved in various claims and legal proceedings related to claims arising out of our operations. We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings, including any such proceedings that are pending or threatened, of which we are aware.

 

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MANAGEMENT

Executive Officers and Board Members

The following table presents information about our executive officers and board members, including their ages as of the date of this prospectus:

 

Name

   Age     

Position

Executive Officers

     

Toni Petersson(1)

     53      Chief Executive Officer, Board Member

Christian Hanke

     52      Chief Financial Officer

Board Members

     

Fredrik Berg

     41      Board Member

Steven Chu(1)

     73      Board Member

Ann Chung

     39      Board Member

Bernard Hours

     65      Board Member

Hannah Jones

     53      Board Member

Mattias Klintemar

     53      Board Member

Tomakin Lai

     54      Board Member

Eric Melloul

     52      Board Member

Björn Öste

     62      Board Member

Frances Rathke(1)

     60      Board Member

Yawen Wu

     38      Board Member

Tim Zhang

     58      Board Member